Search Results for: cognitive behavioral therapy

What Is Cognitive Behavioral Therapy?

CBT Triangle

What Is CBT?

What CBT is NOT

Cognitive behavioral therapy should not be confused with the following:

  • Psychoanalysis – This Freudian approach aims to get at the bottom of subconscious determinants of your actions/behavior.
  • Person-centered/ humanistic therapy – This approach involves a mostly-passive therapist that says little during sessions in an attempt to have you resolve your issues independently.

If you have recently started therapy or have been considering treatment for drug abuse, you’re likely to hear about cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

CBT is an approach to treatment that was originally developed to treat depression but has been expanded to improve symptoms of various mental health illnesses and issues including:

  • Addiction.
  • Anxiety.
  • Psychosis.
  • Trauma.

A major component of CBT is that thoughts, feelings and behaviors are connected in a way that one influences and is influenced by the others. For example, feelings are impacted by your thoughts and behaviors, and your feelings impact your thoughts and behaviors. This notion gives some level of power to the client to improve the unwanted facet by addressing the other two.

So, if you have feelings that you do not like, you can modify them by changing your thoughts and behaviors.



How Does CBT Aid in Addiction Recovery?

The goal of CBT is to increase your awareness of your thoughts, actions and the consequences of each. Through this process, you gain a better understanding of your motivations and the role of drug abuse in your life.

To learn more about your options for treatment that includes cognitive behavioral therapy, call 1-888-744-0069 and get on your way to a happy, healthy life today.

Cognitive Distortions

Many times, cognitive behavioral therapy will focus on studying your thought patterns to look for negative views of yourself, the world around you and your future. Chances are good that there will be flawed perceptions called cognitive distortions. These distortions are like a dark lens that changes the way you view the world. Some cognitive distortions include:

  • All-or-nothing thinking: Perceiving situations in absolute, black-and-white categories.
  • Overgeneralization: Viewing a recent, negative event as a never-ending pattern of defeat.
  • Mental filter: Dwelling only on the negatives.
  • Disqualifying the positive: Insisting that your positives don’t count because of some other force.
  • Jumping to conclusions: Assuming your thoughts, feelings or beliefs are true without any supporting evidence.

By changing your thoughts to become more positive, you can improve your feelings and behaviors.

Co-occurring Disorders

CBT will also prove helpful in identifying and treating comorbid mental health issues that often accompany addiction. Many people engage in addictive behaviors to escape or avoid emotional pain.

CBT can address those psychological issues directly to:

  • Reduce the underlying reasons for addiction.
  • Prevent future relapse.

What Should I Expect in CBT?

CBT helps clients learn skills that can be used in the present and interventions that can be applied to the future to reduce stress, improve behaviors and increase overall well-being.

CBT Works

Simply, CBT is a frequently used therapeutic style for addiction and mental illness because it works. In fact, CBT has been studied and tested over the years to prove its efficacy and value in a number of settings and for a number of presenting problems.

CBT will look very different depending on the therapist and the setting. A strong benefit of CBT is that it allows for incredible flexibility and freedom. Generally, your therapist will serve several functions during the course of your treatment:

  • Teacher. She will provide education regarding your symptoms, diagnosis and treatment. (Homework may be given to gather more information away from session.)
  • Teammate. As you work through the process, she will assist with your follow-through on planned interventions to achieve your goals.

A typical CBT session will last 45 minutes to an hour and will involve discussing irrational thoughts, negative behaviors, and stress of the last week. From there, your therapist will challenge your negative thinking and faulty beliefs while offering positive coping skills to employ when faced with challenges.

CBT helps clients learn skills that can be used in the present and interventions that can be applied to the future to reduce stress, improve behaviors and increase overall well-being.

Other CBT Techniques

Other interventions in CBT include:

  • Relaxation training for anxiety.
  • Assertiveness training to improve relationships.
  • Self-monitoring education to improve insight.
  • Cognitive restructuring to modify thinking patterns.

Finding Addiction Treatment that Includes CBT

If you are interested in starting cognitive behavioral therapy, you are in luck. Because of its strong reputation for being effective across a range of issues, mental health professionals trained in CBT are widely available. Chances are high that any outpatient individual, outpatient group, inpatient, residential treatment or rehabilitation program you would attend will be staffed with competent CBT therapists.

The best news is that CBT is very low-risk. The odds of something negative or harmful happening from attending a CBT session is minimal. The reward is a different matter.

If you are not convinced that addiction, depression, anxiety or other issues are negatively impacting your life, a CBT therapist can assess your situation and symptoms to see if you meet criteria for a mental health diagnosis. CBT therapists work with people looking to achieve more from life, as well as people with serious mental health and substance use issues.


Other Supplemental Therapies

Another major benefit of CBT is that it integrates aspects of other styles well while allowing clients to benefit from other services. Many CBT therapists utilize aspects of the following orientations into their sessions:

  • Motivational Interviewing – This style of therapy involves a certain method of questioning that is particularly helpful in addiction, and it fits easily with CBT.
  • Holistic Approach – A holistic approach will look at your overall well-being to find ways to improve your physical, emotional and spiritual health.
  • 12-Step Programs – Some differences of opinion exist between programs like AA and NA, but the similarities are enough to make these two interventions work well together. Many clients will attend regular meetings in conjunction with their CBT sessions.
  • Medication Management – When you work with a CBT therapist, they might recommend a psychiatric evaluation. You may be prescribed medication to help improve your symptoms. Many studies show that CBT and medication work better together than either alone.

The best type of treatment for your or a loved one will be tailored to your personal needs. Call 1-888-744-0069 to find a program that incorporates the types of care that you are looking for. Don’t put your physical and emotional health for another day.


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Group Therapy: Substance Abuse Treatment

Group Therapy
Along with individual therapy, family therapy, and medication management, group therapy is an indispensable element of effective substance abuse and mental health treatment. Group therapy is a broad term for any type of therapy aimed at creating symptom reduction and recovery in two or more people 1,2.

 

Group therapy is an option that can be as effective as individual sessions.

Group therapy will have a trained leader conducting the session 3. Unlike family therapy, the members in group therapy will not usually have a pre-existing relationship outside of sessions.

Group therapy sessions can be conducted in varied therapeutic settings and levels of care, including 1:

For someone committed to ending their drug use and beginning a period of recovery, group therapy is an option that can be as effective as individual sessions 3.


Advantages of Group Therapy

Group therapy has a number of advantageous elements that equal or surpass individual therapy, such as the ability to 3:

  • Offer members education about the recovery process.
  • Provide support and motivation from peers to maintain recovery goals.
  • Give members the opportunity to observe issues encountered by others in recovery and observe their methods of problem-solving.
  • Empower group members by encouraging them to offer assistance and feedback to other members.
  • Teach healthy coping skills to manage daily stressors without resorting to substance use.
  • Boost structure and routine in the lives of group members.
  • Build a sense of optimism, self-worth, and belief in the group members.
  • Develop relationships between group members that can be used outside of sessions for support and encouragement.
  • Effectively treat many individuals simultaneously with one therapist, allowing those clients quicker access to therapy.
  • Utilize therapeutic tools (such as challenging irrational beliefs and confronting poor decision-making) to modify behaviors.

Is Group Therapy Right for Me?

People interested in attending a therapy group will need to be matched up with a group that suits their individual needs. Before placing a recovering individual in a group, a provider will consider the individual’s 3:

  • Treatment preferences.
  • Unique needs.
  • Emotional stability.
  • Stage in recovery.

Some people will not be a fit for group therapy based on their current status. This therapeutic method may be inappropriate for those who 3:

  • Refuse group therapy as a viable treatment option.
  • Cannot maintain confidentiality and are at risk for breaking group rules.
  • Are currently in crisis with severe, unmanageable symptoms.
  • Struggle to build suitable relationships.
  • Experience extreme stress around other people and new situations.

Other groups, like women and adolescents, require special considerations when it comes to placement in a therapy group. Some evidence shows that women who participate in women-only groups may have better outcomes than those in groups with men 3. Also, there is some risk that adolescents in group therapy may actually encourage/reinforce substance use with each other 4. Leaders of adolescent groups must be aware of this risk and actively manage it 4.


Models of Group Therapy

If group therapy is recommended for you, there are 5 separate models of group sessions that you may encounter:

Various models of group therapy
  • Psychoeducational groups.
  • Skill development groups.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy groups.
  • Support groups.
  • Interpersonal process groups.

With a knowledgeable and proficient treatment professional, any model can offer strong benefits; however, certain models may better fit your individual needs. Additionally, some therapy groups may take advantage of several models during the course of the meetings, meaning that they shift from one model to another.

Psychoeducational Groups

The primary focus of a psychoeducational group is to offer education and information regarding general themes of substance use, mental health, related behaviors, and the consequences of these behaviors. These groups might resemble a classroom setting, as the material will be presented through audio, video, or a lecture format 3.

Psychoeducational groups can be helpful for many situations as it teaches members 3:

  • To recognize the impact of substance use.
  • About their condition, the barriers to recovery, and how to live a drug-free life.
  • Beneficial skills like relaxation, meditation, healthy eating, and anger management.

Skill Development Groups

In skill development groups, the group leader will have a similar position as a teacher, but here, the material provided will be more specific to the group members and their individual needs. Skill development groups will depend more on the group interacting with each other rather than only the leader speaking to them 3.

The group sessions will focus on a skill that contributes to the members’ ability to remain abstinent from drugs. Potential group topics include 3:

  • Handling triggers to engage in substance use or related behaviors.
  • Positively interacting and communicating with others.
  • Identifying and modifying responses to anger.
  • Improving parenting skills.
  • Managing financial responsibilities.

Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Groups

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a widely used evidence-based style of therapy that operates on the idea that negative behaviors are learned and reinforced over time. To change these behaviors, the individual must work to modify the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that contribute to substance use 2. One example of a thought that may contribute to continued substance use is “I’m a bad person; I don’t deserve to be sober.” By modifying damaging thoughts and beliefs, the individual can accomplish the changes needed to sustain recovery.

To accomplish these changes, a CBT group will 3:

  • Identify the members’ distorted beliefs and problematic behaviors.
  • Teach and encourage the use of new thinking and behavior patterns.
  • Offer relapse prevention training.

Support Groups

As the name suggests, the principle focus of a support group is to offer care and understanding to all members of the group. This support will come from the group leader and from one member to the others. The leader will help members to improve their interpersonal skills as they engage in group discussion, share experiences, and help each other resolve their challenges 3.

The therapist will demonstrate the desired level of communication, model respectful interaction, and provide positive reinforcement for members 3.

Interpersonal Process Groups

Interpersonal process groups attempt to promote healing in members through an understanding of psychodynamics (the way individuals function psychologically). The group leader will note and process 3:

  • How each member is feeling and functioning in the group.
  • How the members are interacting with each other.
  • How the group is performing as a whole.

A focus will be on emotional development and childhood concerns that, when left unresolved, lead to poor decision-making, impulsivity, and unhealthy coping skills. By resolving these issues, the person can improve their judgment.

With interpersonal group therapy, the content covered in each group session is secondary. Rather, the leader looks to see how the group members are behaving and interacting in the present and how their present is being influenced by their past.

A Note on Self-Help Groups

12-step groups and other self-help groups are not considered group therapy. Although they occur in a group setting with people that did not have a preexisting relationship, they lack one key component of group therapy: a professional facilitator.

Group therapies employ various types of mental health professionals to lead the groups. Self-help groups may utilize peer leaders or have a collective approach. Self-help groups provide great assistance to people in recovery, but they are not a professional group therapy option 2.


Group Therapy Categories

Based on the way the group is conducted and who participates in it, different subtypes exist for each of the aforementioned group therapy models.

Fixed and Revolving Groups

Groups can either be fixed or revolving. A fixed membership group is one that begins and ends with the same members throughout. Once the group is initiated, new members are not usually added. These groups generally have less than 15 members and are appropriate for people that are at similar points in their recovery 3.

Revolving membership groups are named for their ability to change members at any time. When someone is appropriate for the group, they will join and then leave when the time is right. These groups will be run constantly with an ever-changing collection of members 3.

Time-Limited and Ongoing Groups

Fixed and revolving groups can be divided further into time-limited or ongoing groups 3:

  • Time-limited groups will ask members to attend for a specified length of time or number of sessions.
  • Ongoing groups will allow members to attend indefinitely based on their symptoms and overall progress.

Each type has strengths and weaknesses, and which one will be best will depend on the unique needs of the individual. All versions can be effective.


Stages of Group Therapy

Regardless of the model or category of the therapy group, it will progress through three general stages. They are 3:

Stages of group therapy
  • The beginning phasegetting started. In this phase, the members will become oriented to the process and learn the group rules and goals.
  • The middle phasewhere change is made. The middle phase should consume the majority of someone’s time in group therapy. Here, the therapist will use their skills to trigger changes in thought patterns and modify behaviors to move towards treatment goals. This is also where meaningful connections between members will be made.
  • The ending phasemoving to closure. Ideally, the relationships with leaders and members will not end abruptly. Any run of regular group therapy must come to an end at some point; however, this end point should be projected gradually to allow for adequate recognition of the accomplishments made over the course of therapy and for addressing any anxiety and/or sadness over the group coming to a close.

Group Leader Roles and Responsibilities

The qualifications and experience of those who lead therapy groups will vary somewhat. Examples of people that can lead groups include 5:

  • Social workers.
  • Psychologists.
  • Psychiatrists.
  • Licensed or certified substance abuse counselors.

Some terms like facilitator, therapist, or clinician are used generally and do not denote specific training or experience.

Leaders should have the following qualities to ensure an effective group 3:

  • The ability to maintain a consistent, safe, supportive environment to promote abstinence.
  • A strong sense of self to manage group members’ symptoms as well as the impact group sessions have on them personally.
  • The ability to listen actively and make the group members feel heard.
  • The use of empathy, the ability to understand what the client is experiencing.
  • The capacity for projecting self-assurance and expertise that provides a role model for members.
  • Creativity and flexibility to react to unexpected, unplanned situations as they present.
  • A strong sense of ethics that is maintained as challenging situations arise.
  • Trustworthiness that promotes openness between members and the therapist.
  • The ability to use humor and levity when appropriate to balance difficult moments.

Some groups will employ a team of therapists to better manage sessions. In substance abuse treatment, all leaders will work professionally to 3:

  • Link the connections between substance use and thoughts/feelings.
  • Limit conflict.
  • Boost motivation.
  • Build coping skills.

Group therapy is a preferred option in many situations for people in various stages of recovery. If you or someone you know could benefit from participating in a therapy group, call 1-888-744-0069 to begin the process and find treatment appropriate.


References:

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2016). Treatments for Substance Use Disorders.
  2. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide.
  3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2015). Substance Abuse Treatment: Group Therapy – Quick Guide for Clinicians.
  4. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). Principles of Adolescent Substance Use Disorder Treatment: A Research-Based Guide.
  5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2015). Behavioral Health Treatment and Services.

Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing Therapy

EMDR-treatment-for-young-woman

What Is EMDR?

Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a therapeutic style originally developed to address stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms related to traumatic events and memories.

EMDR is used to treat posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and has been shown to be effective in this area since its inception. In fact, depending on the level and complexity of trauma, EMDR is known to be effective in as little as one session. It is important to note, however, that there is still some debate among scholars and clinicians in regards to the validity EMDR research and its effectiveness.

There is hope in recovery. Call 1-888-744-0069 and find treatment now.

The world of psychotherapy is filled with talk therapies like cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), motivational interviewing (MI), person-centered therapy, reality therapy, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT), and others. These all share the similarities of a having a dialogue between the therapist and the client, but EMDR differs from these. EMDR involves active physical participation on behalf of the patient, namely the purposeful direction of therapist-guided eye movements, in conjunction with therapist-patient dialogue.

EMDR believes that the problematic thoughts and behaviors occur because the traumatic life events were not appropriately processed when they occurred. This lack of processing leads to the events being stored as harmful memories that later disrupt cognitive, emotional, and social functioning.

The goal of EMDR is to reprocess these undesirable memories and experiences. A therapeutic style like CBT would be geared toward exposing the patient to the traumatic thoughts and feelings through imaginary scenes, or, perhaps, by re-confronting the traumatic situation (if possible). EMDR takes a different approach to working with these neurocognitive systems.

The idea behind EMDR is that reprocessing the memories allows them to be assimilated and accommodated in the brain. The act, called adaptive information processing, is at the core of EMDR. The eye movements are reported to aid in the way the information is accepted into the brain’s networks.


Video: EMDR

Credit: Michael Burns


Course of Treatment for EMDR

EMDR has a specific, formulaic approach to treatment based on an 8-phase approach. The therapist will lead the client through each of the phases at a pace that is appropriate for the client’s needs with some sessions accomplishing multiple phases and some phases requiring multiple sessions.

The 8 Phases of EMDR

Phase 1: History and planning. In this phase, the therapist will gather information related to the need for treatment. Current symptoms, past issues, triggers, and unwanted behaviors will be discussed to gain an understanding of the factors involved. An interesting facet of EMDR is that the information does not need to be exhaustive or detailed. At this point, the events can be vague and general as long as they yield targets for EMDR to address.

Phase 2: Preparation. Phase 1 may take a session or two, but phase 2 can take as many as four sessions. A major focus of this stage is building a trusting rapport between the client and the therapist. The relationship is needed so the client will have the comfort to express their feelings to the therapist later in treatment to ensure the best possible outcomes. Along with the trust building, the therapist will discuss the fundamentals of EMDR, the course of treatment, and needed relaxation techniques to use when emotional experiences arise.

Phase 3: Assessment. This phase involves looking at the established targets from phase one. The client will develop a mental picture of that traumatic event, a negative statement from the event, and a positive statement that is the goal belief. So, if the traumatic situation was a car accident, the picture might be broken glass in the car. The negative statement is “cars are dangerous.” The positive statement is “cars are safe most of the time.” Finally, in this phase, clients are asked to rate how strongly they hold these beliefs and their physical and emotional reactions to these ideas.

Phase 4: Desensitization. This phase marks the onset of the reprocessing. Here, the client is asked to become aware of disturbing images, thoughts, feelings, and physical sensations while the therapist utilizes stimulation in the form of instructing the client to shift their eye movements by following the therapist’s hand (though sounds and physical tapping can be used). The client reports the present elements in generalities, and the therapist continues to use the stimulation until the client reports lower ratings of distress.

Phase 5: Installation. Now that the negative image and statements are no longer provoking, the focus can turn towards the positive statement from phase 3. The new belief is given attention while the therapist continues to provide the stimulation in the form of the client’s eye movements, tapping, or sounds. The phase ends when the client reports having a full belief in the positive statement.

Phase 6: Body scan. This phase checks the efficacy of the previous two phases by asking the client to note any negative elements remaining from the target. If the target is unresolved, phase 4 will be restarted to yield the desired results.

Phase 7: Closure. The goal of EMDR is leaving the client feeling better than when she arrived. The therapist will lead the client through some of the relaxations and calming exercises previously learned. Additionally, the therapist will provide information on what the client may expect in between sessions regarding the continued processing of targets.

Phase 8: Reevaluation. The final phase actually occurs at the beginning of the next session. The therapist checks in to ensure that the results noted from the body scan continue. When all targets have been addressed and reevaluation shows no disturbing issues remaining, treatment will end.

The trauma-related use of EMDR can be applied to many situations including:

  • Sexual abuses like rape and molestation.
  • Physical injuries stemming from a range of accidents or intentional violence.
  • Emotional abuse in the form of conflictual relationships.
  • War-related trauma and post-traumatic stress.

It is important to remember that the traumatic events can be experienced directly or to someone close to you. If someone you love was in a dangerous or life-threatening situation, you can develop posttraumatic stress disorder, as well.


EMDR for Addiction

When the model of treatment was created in the late 1980s and early 1990s, EMDR was used exclusively for trauma. How does this fit with addiction treatment? Many people dealing with substance abuse, addiction, and dependence have problems related to trauma.

For some, past trauma is a contributor to addiction, as substance abuse can be a means of self-medication to block out or escape from the harmful memories.

For others, they have experienced trauma during their use. For example, an addict may have been sexually assaulted while under the influence. In such case, the substance use is likely to continue unless the trauma feeding the addiction can be addressed.

Over the years, people have worked to expand and modify EMDR to treat other issues. One such example is called the feeling-state addiction protocol (FSAP). This therapy style is based on the foundations of EMDR but applied to issues related to addiction and compulsion. With EMDR, there is the focus on the negative experience that creates trauma. In FSAP, the focus is on the intense positive experiences associated with destructive, compulsive behaviors that create and maintain addiction. EMDR tries to replace the negatives with positives.

FSAP tries to:

  • Break the connection between the positive feeling and the destructive behavior.
  • Process the negative beliefs associated with the compulsion.
Fusce vitae

FSAP is believed to be effective in the treatment of:

  • Behavioral addictions including gambling, sex, addictive overeating, compulsive shopping, and shoplifting.
  • Substance use disorders including addictions to alcohol, legal drugs like tobacco, prescription drugs, and illicit drugs.
  • Anger.
  • Co-dependent and abusive relationships.

EMDR Therapists

Reports state that over 100,000 EMDR therapists are available around the world with available databases to find ones near you. Therapists are able to receive a certification in EMDR that signifies their ability to accurately utilize the skills.

To get help finding a program that utilizes EMDR, call 1-888-744-0069 today.


Integrating EMDR

In the world of counseling for mental health concerns, EMDR stands out for its unique view of treatment and the methods of improvement.

EMDR is used as a standalone treatment in many situations, but it can also be used in combination with other therapeutic interventions. For example, if a client has issues with depression, addiction, and trauma, the clinician may choose to begin treatment by using EMDR to address the trauma in hopes that reprocessing this information will reduce the other symptoms. If the symptoms do not alleviate completely, the therapist may shift focus by bringing in other treatment options including:

  • CBT, which is used with good results for a range of symptoms related to depression and anxiety.
  • Motivational interviewing, which helps reduce ambivalence related addiction while fostering a greater sense of control in the client.
  • Medication management, which will help limit the symptoms of mental health disorders and reduce cravings associated with the addiction. Medication may not be appropriate during the phases of EMDR, though.

In the world of counseling for mental health concerns, EMDR stands out for its unique view of treatment and the methods of improvement. EMDR is not without its detractors, though, that claim the eye movement portion of EMDR is not essential. Regardless, EMDR has a foundation of evidence to support its role as a helpful method of therapy.


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Dialectical Behavior Therapy

man-in-therapy-getting-treatment-DBT

What is DBT?

Dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT) is a branch of psychotherapy that is rooted in the principles of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with several modifications and additions. The treatment style was developed originally to aid those with borderline personality disorders (BPD) but has found success treating conditions that are related to or independent from BPD including:

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  • Depressive disorders.
  • Bipolar disorder.
  • Posttraumatic stress disorder.
  • Anxiety disorders.
  • Eating disorders.
  • Substance use disorders.

Like CBT, DBT is a type of treatment that is studied and researched to demonstrate its efficacy in these types of situations. It is shown to be more effective than other types of treatment or no treatment at all.

History and Development

DBT was created in the late 1980s and early 1990s by Dr. Marsha Linehan. While working with clients that engaged in self-injury and had suicidal thoughts, she found the standard CBT principles to be limiting, as they maintained a constant emphasis on changing these behaviors. Because of this, she developed DBT to add validation/acceptance and dialectics (explained below) into the CBT frame.

The validation is added to balance the desire for change with acceptance on behalf of the therapist and client. Validation is not used to permit or encourage unwanted behaviors, only to offer an understanding of why the client would act in these ways.

The addition of dialectics expands on the notion of validation. Dialectics is the idea that:

  • Everything is connected.
  • Change is constant.
  • Opposing forces can be brought together to find balance. This is illustrated in the view that acceptance and taking action to change are unified opposites.

Video: What Is Dialectical Behavior Therapy?

The following video will provide a short but comprehensive overview of DBT – what it means, its goals, and what to expect.

Credit: UC San Francisco (UCSF)


Views and Beliefs 

DBT shares many views and beliefs with CBT, noting that unwanted thoughts and behaviors are learned and reinforced. DBT believes that the interaction between two factors increases the chances of persistent mental health issues:

  • Emotional vulnerability.
  • Invalidating environments.

Someone that is emotionally vulnerable will feel like their life is turbulent and extreme, and they will be quick to respond with strong emotional reactions. This vulnerability can be caused by traumatic events or from the individual’s natural disposition (i.e., genetics).

An invalidating environment is where someone is consistently made felt as though that their feelings are wrong or “bad.” A lack of kindness, respect, and acceptance can produce an invalidating environment.

DBT includes a level of optimism that is not found usually in CBT. DBT conveys that:

  • People are doing the best they can in their current situation.
  • They want situations to improve.
  • People are capable of learning new behaviors to change their lives.
  • The problems are not always the person’s fault, but it is their duty to resolve it.

Goals of DBT 

DBT includes 4 main goals of treatment for the client that are divided into stages.

The Four Main Goals of Treatment

Stage 1: Transitioning from out of control to in control.

This stage is focused on reducing reckless and dangerous behaviors (e.g., self-harming) while building skills that include increasing attention, improving relationships, understanding emotions, and managing distress.

Stage 2: Transitioning from emotional unavailability to emotional engagement.

People will shut down emotions that are too overwhelming to manage. The goal in stage 2 is to fully and accurately experience feelings without relying on avoidance or escape.

Stage 3: Building an ordinary life and solving ordinary problems.

During this stage, the client will focus on problems that are more common and expected. Rather than targeting extreme symptoms like chronic suicidality, the treatment will focus on the relationship conflicts, problems at work, life goals, and more mild mental health symptoms that most people experience.

Stage 4: Transitioning from feeling incomplete to feeling complete/connected. 

The previous stages were focused on reducing the unwanted symptoms, but the goal of the final stage is to allow the client to move towards happiness in the future. DBT believes that finding a sense of connection to the world facilitates this goal.

 


Methods of Change

In DBT, the therapist controls all aspects of treatment planning and movement. The therapist will establish and organize the components listed below. Beyond that, the therapist will direct other care including medication management, substance use treatment, case management, and vocational rehabilitation when needed.

To successfully accomplish the goals of treatment, DBT uses a specialized treatment approach. The approach is comprised of 4 parts with three involving the client and one focusing on the therapist. They are:

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  • DBT group therapy. A major focus of DBT is the use of a skills group where a client will meet with a group of other people that exhibit similar self-destructive symptoms. The skills group will appear like a schoolroom where the therapist will teach a particular topic or skill during the session and assign follow-up homework for the client to practice between sessions. These weekly groups generally last for 2.5 hours over 24 weeks. At times, the groups are broken into four six-week sessions that focus on one skill only.
  • DBT individual therapy. This individual treatment will address past and present client issues as they occur. In some cases, the individual therapist will be the group therapist, but it could be a different therapist depending on the treatment center. Individual therapy sessions will last for about an hour and occur weekly.
  • DBT phone coaching. The therapists will make themselves available to the client to assist with issues as they present during time away from treatment. Like with other treatment styles, it will not be the job of the therapist to instruct the client on what to do. Rather, the therapist will guide the client through options and available resources to improve decision-making.
  • DBT therapist consultation. DBT is an intense course of treatment for the client. The same intensity is present for the therapist as well. To ensure the best treatment is being prescribed and followed through, therapists attend consultation in group or individual settings. These act as a support system to the therapist to discuss their clients, their progress, and the therapists’ reactions. When the therapist is well supported, he can better care for the client. Other theoretical orientations recommend supervision, but DBT is one of a few that demand this focus on the therapist.


DBT Skills

As mentioned, DBT is focused on creating an effective environment for the client to learn and practice skills. The primary skills addressed in DBT are:

  • Mindfulness. This is the act of being completely aware and engaged in one’s current setting. People with mental health or substance use issues often spend increased time distracting themselves, thinking about the past, or worrying about the future. Mindfulness is the practice of being fully immersed in the here and now, with kindness and curiosity towards one’s current experience.
  • Distress tolerance. When people experience distress, there is an urge to reduce or change it immediately. Using a substance during periods of stress is an example of an unhealthy way to manage distress. Distress tolerance teaches how to accept and tolerate distress rather than escape from it.
  • Interpersonal effectiveness. When communication and conflict resolution skills are lacking, problems increase. DBT teaches people to learn how to have happier, more fulfilling relationships through effective interactions with others.
  • Emotional regulation. This is another example of dialectics. Distress tolerance moves towards acceptance while emotional regulation works to identify unwanted feelings and find ways to change them.

These skills are so effective that other styles of therapy have borrowed them and currently use them in a number of settings. People that are interested in DBT but cannot commit to the full treatment plan (including group and individual sessions) can still benefit from these skills.


DBT Effectiveness

DBT has been shown to help clients invest and remain engaged in sessions.

Even though DBT is relatively young in the world of psychology, it has become the standard treatment for borderline personality disorder (BPD). Over the years, its efficacy has spread to include treatment of many self-destructive behaviors like self-injury and substance abuse.

The treatment works to improve the client’s well-being even when he does not meet the criteria for a mental health diagnosis. DBT has been shown to help clients invest and remain engaged in sessions.

Another positive about DBT is that all of the support for the style is backed by scientific evidence. It does not base its accomplishments on anecdotal information collected over the years. Many of the findings related to DBT are available here.


Finding a DBT Therapist

Depending on your location, finding a therapist trained in DBT should not be difficult. Because of its reputation for success, even therapists that were trained before DBT existed have attended trainings on the subject. The institute named for the creator of DBT offers a DBT therapist directory to locate a therapist that completed their training.

If you have questions or need help finding a therapist or a rehab program, call 1-888-744-0069 to speak to someone who can help you find the right care for you or your loved one today.

Resources:

Family Therapy: A Vital Part of Addiction Treatment

couple in therapy

The effects of addiction aren’t limited to the addicted person, and the causes of substance abuse can be varied and complex – family issues can contribute to and perpetuate the illness of addiction. In fact, addiction is sometimes referred to as a “family disease.” Successful treatment, therefore, often incorporates the family of the person struggling with addiction.

Family therapy refers to a group of treatment styles that target the group rather than the individual within the group. All of the styles are based on the notion that families share a connection, and by modifying one component of the system, you can affect the other components. This means the health of a family can play a major role in the success of recovery.

Historically, someone in recovery for addiction would receive treatment independently, often removed from their home, community, and family, but there has been a recent shift towards a more integrated approach to treatment that not only focuses on the individual but their family environment as well.

Family therapy is an example of this kind of treatment. This approach has been shown to provide high benefits with low costs, and organizations including the National Institute on Drug Abuse and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services recommend family therapy be incorporated into any substance abuse treatment program.

Is It Time for Family Therapy?

It might be time for family therapy if:

  • Your family member continues to use substances despite your objections.
  • Your mental and physical health have been negatively impacted by the family member’s use.
  • You want to learn methods to improve your ability to respond appropriately to your family members use.
  • Your family member has not found success from other treatment approaches.
  • You’ve experienced family issues that you (or your loved one) believe have contributed to the addiction.

Many family members of people struggling with addiction feel they don’t need therapy because the addict is the one with the easily identifiable problem. An important consideration is that family therapy can be completed in combination with other treatments like:

  • Individual therapy.
  • Group therapy.
  • Medication management.
  • Residential rehabilitation programs.

There does not have to be a choice between family therapy or others.

It’s also important to understand that therapy can provide support for family members but also boost their loved one’s health and chances of recovery as well.

Since there is no set definition for “family,” family therapy might be appropriate even if you are not technically family. Significant others, friends, and coworkers may choose to attend this form of treatment.


Benefits of Family Therapy

Studies show that treatment approaches that involve the family have better engagement, higher rates of success, and increased aftercare participation.

You can expect many positives to result from the treatment. Benefits of family therapy include:

  • Assisting the substance user to gain awareness of their needs and behaviors.
  • Improving the mental and physical state of the entire family unit.
  • Permitting family members to gain self-care interventions to improve their own well-being.
  • Improving communication styles and relationship quality.
  • Helping families understand and avoid enabling behaviors.
  • Address codependent behavior that may be preventing recovery.
  • Learning and understanding the systems in place that support and deter substance use.
  • Preventing the substance use from spreading throughout the family or down through future generations.

Family therapy will aim to accomplish the above by emphasizing the strengths of the complete family and diminishing the influence of substance use for all members.

Generally, a therapist will engage the family in dialogues focused on developing problem-solving skills, motivation for change, and assigning accountability for all in the family.

Are There Any Risks?

Family therapy, like most other forms of treatment, have some level of risk. The risks of family therapy are very low and include:

  • One member of the family feeling attacked.
  • An escalation of anger and violence in a family member.
  • The substance user being triggered to continue or increase use.

Fortunately, the potential benefits far outweigh the dangers. It will be the job of the therapist to thoroughly screen and assess each member of the family before treatment can begin to ensure safety for all involved.


Types of Family Therapy Available 

couple in therapy

Family therapy for addiction has roots in many established theoretical orientations including:

  • Marriage and family therapy.
  • Strategic family therapy.
  • Cognitive behavioral therapy.
  • Couples therapy.
  • Solution-focused family therapy.

Because of the range of sources, family therapies for substance abuse will look and feel different based on the specific model the therapist is utilizing. Regardless of the style, the therapist will work with the family unit as a complete group, smaller subgroups, and with members individually to create a plan based on the family dynamics in place. Each program will incorporate the family at different levels.

Many specific interventions are suited for family therapy for substance abuse like:

  • Multidimensional family therapy (MDFT). This style is most appropriate for adolescents and includes individual and family sessions occurring in an office, the home, or the community. Individual sessions will work to improve decision-making skills, communication, and problem-solving. The family sessions will explore the active parenting style and ways to positively impact the substance use.
  • Family behavior therapy (FBT). This style has value for both teens and adults. Its broad approach targets the substance use as well as mental health issues including depression and defiance, family problems, employment, and financial concerns. Treatment focuses on building skills to improve home life and developing goals to end substance use while providing rewards for accomplishing these objectives.
  • Community and family approach (CRA). This approach expands past the family to include the community as well. Sessions completed once or twice weekly involve learning ways to improve communication in the family and build a wider support system. The family is instrumental in identifying and modifying their role in the substance abuse.

Find Help

If substance use has been negatively impacting your life and the life of your family members, it may be time to seek family therapy. By engaging in treatment focused on the family, you can make a difference in the life of the addict while improving your own well being.

Call 1-888-744-0069 for more information and treatment appropriate for you.


Sources:

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide. (n.d.). Retrieved October 30, 2015, from https://d14rmgtrwzf5a.cloudfront.net/sites/default/files/podat_1.pdf

Substance Abuse Treatment and Family Therapy. (2004). Retrieved October 30, 2015, from http://adaiclearinghouse.org/downloads/TIP-39-Substance-Abuse-Treatment-and-Family-Therapy-55.pdf

Miller, S., & Saitz, R. (2014). Principles of Addiction Medicine (5th ed.) (R. Ries & D. Fiellin, Eds.). Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health.

Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy

young-woman-telling-personal-beliefs-to-therapist

What is REBT?

Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) is a psychological orientation created by Albert Ellis in the mid-1950s that puts the focus on thoughts and beliefs. Ellis created this orientation in response to the prevalent therapeutic types of the time. In the 1950s, psychological theory and therapy were dominated by psychoanalysis and behaviorism. Ellis began as a trained psychoanalyst but began to view the style as something that only addressed the surface of the client’s needs and could even make symptoms worse.

It’s never too late to start your journey to recovery. Call 1-888-744-0069 and get help today.

Psychoanalytical thought is based on the idea that people are driven by unconscious motivation for sex and power. Behaviorism is based on the idea that people are a product of their environment and will continue engaging in behaviors that are rewarded and reinforced.

Ellis thought these theories were incomplete because they did not attend to the thoughts of the individual. He believed that it was the patterns of thought that lead to the development and perpetuation of psychological issues like depression and anxiety. This concept became the central focus of his theoretical orientation, REBT.


The Importance of Beliefs

Ellis wanted to give more attention to the thought processes of people, but he took it a step further to focus on their beliefs. He saw a belief having two components:

  • The first is the thought, which is how someone subjectively views a situation.
  • The second is the emotional component, which is how someone feels about that thing.

Ellis recognized that people have many beliefs that guide their lives. He separated these beliefs into the categories of positive beliefs and negative beliefs:

  • Positive beliefs are ones that are accurate, valid, and factual.
  • Negative beliefs are usually inaccurate, invalid, and false.

Having more negative beliefs will make someone feel worse, and more positive beliefs will lead to increased happiness and a greater sense of well-being. Ellis wanted to find ways for people to develop more rational, emotive beliefs. This is where the name rational emotive behavioral therapy came from.

The 3 Basic Musts of REBT

During his work on beliefs, Ellis found that people had endless versions of irrational beliefs. Despite the differences, he found that the majority could be placed into three major categories based on their theme. These themes are sometimes referred to the three basic musts of REBT. They include:

The irrationally high expectation of oneself to be exceptional and perform at outstanding levels.

I MUST do the best. I MUST show people how good I am. Of course, people cannot be the best in all situations, so anytime they do not meet or surpass their expectations, they will be let down and disappointed. They will feel like failures.

The irrationally high expectation of others.

Here, someone believes that others must always treat them with kindness and fairness. If others do not meet this expectation, they will be labeled as trouble, flawed or no good.

The irrationally high expectation to always get what you want.

In a very self-centered way, this belief marks the demand for only what you want, when you want it. It feels like a tragedy to not get what is desired.


The ABC Model

The focus on beliefs is the center of REBT. REBT works with the notion that situations and events in life do not lead to the unwanted feelings or symptoms; rather, it is the individual’s beliefs about the event that lead to the consequence. Instead of saying, “This person made me use drugs,” REBT would focus on the belief, making statements like “This person offered me drugs, and I believed that they would solve my problems, so I used.” In REBT, that faulty belief in the middle is the problem, even more so than being offered to use a substance.

To illustrate this point, REBT uses the ABC model (sometimes called the ABC Theory of Personality or the ABCDE Model of Emotional Disturbance). In this theory:

  • A represents the activating event. This is the situation that triggers the start of the cycle. The activating event can be a person, place, thing, event, or thought. It can be from the past, in the present, or in the future.
  • B is the belief that you hold about activating event.
  • C is the consequence of the belief. It can be a thought, feeling, or behavior.

The Power of Beliefs

Consider the following examples of the ABC model, noting how differing beliefs can lead to a range of consequences — even when the activating event remains the same.

A – Your spouse comes home late.

B – You believe your spouse is a lying, cheating jerk.

C – You feel angry and irritable. You yell at your spouse and demand that they leave.

A – Your spouse comes home late.

B – You believe your spouse is a loving and caring person, and maybe they got caught up at work.

C – You feel happy to see them and ask if they had a nice day.

A – Your spouse comes home late.

B – You believe your spouse is weak, fragile, and easily hurt.

C – You feel worried and scared. You considered calling the police and local hospitals to find them.

This exercise could go on endlessly, which illustrates the power of beliefs. A range of consequences can stem from only one activating event since the belief filters the information and distorts it into something different. Looking at the examples above — it is easy to see which belief is the positive one and which are the negative ones.


Disputing Irrational Beliefs

In the ABC model, disputing irrational beliefs comprises the D. For there to be an improvement in symptoms and functioning, one must challenge his irrational beliefs. By doing this, the person will reduce the negative influence the thought pattern has on their life and, in turn, leave room for more rational thoughts to emerge.

Ellis understood that each person has some level of irrational beliefs, and that it was impossible to completely remove all irrational beliefs from the thought process. The goal of disputing beliefs is to reduce the major contributors to unwanted thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to result in lowered symptoms.

The process of disputing irrational beliefs is broken down into 3 steps. They are:

Fusce vitae

1. Detect. Before you can dispute an irrational belief, you have to recognize the presence of a belief. Along the way, you can gain an understanding of where it came from and the role it serves. The act is accomplished by being more aware of your thoughts and reactions to situations. Asking, “Why do I feel this way?” is a great starting point.

2. Debate. Once the belief has been identified, you can begin weighing the evidence for the belief being accurate or inaccurate. Defending both points of view can lead to a clarified perception of the situation.

3. Decide. The final step of the disputing process is to decide if your belief is rational or irrational. The best way to determine this will be to note the consequence of the belief. Many beliefs that lead to unwanted consequences are irrational.


What Should I Expect in REBT?

Many therapists integrate the focus on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of cognitive therapy with the focus on irrational beliefs of REBT. This can result in a more thorough treatment that addresses more aspects of the individual.

Beginning treatment in REBT will be an easy process, but asking for REBT by name may lead to some confusion. During the same time Ellis was working on REBT, a person named Aaron Beck was creating his own brand of therapy called cognitive therapy. Over the years, the ideas of these two men began to merge because of their similar goals and views. Now, both of these therapeutic orientations exist under the umbrella term of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT).

Many therapists integrate the focus on thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of cognitive therapy with the focus on irrational beliefs of REBT. This can result in a more thorough treatment that addresses more aspects of the individual.

A session that involves REBT or CBT will last for about an hour with the therapist serving as an educator and a teammate interested in aiding your ability to accomplish your goals and lead a happier life. They will work with you to identify and dispute your irrational beliefs, since the process can be intimidating and overwhelming at times. Additionally, your therapist can suggest alternate ways of thinking that will aid in symptom relief.

The total course of treatment can be as short as a few sessions or as long as years depending on your needs. To find a treatment program that incorporates REBT or any other therapy type, call 1-888-744-0069 today.


How Does REBT Aid in Addiction Recovery?

If someone is facing recovery from addiction, REBT will inspect many of the beliefs that encouraged use in the beginning, maintained use through addiction, and are contributing to cravings or yearning for the substance in the present.

Also, REBT will impress the importance of acceptance in 3 forms:

  • Acceptance of self.
  • Acceptance of others.
  • Acceptance of the world.

REBT is a useful therapeutic tool because it works alongside other helpful interventions including:

  • Motivational interviewing.
  • Medication management.
  • 12-step programs.
  • Community treatment.

REBT is used to treat a host of physical and mental health issues as well as addictions. Best of all, REBT is a low-risk treatment style with a great deal of potential for positive gain. To find a program that incorporates REBT and/or other treatment types, call 1-888-744-0069 to speak to a treatment support specialist today.


Resources:

How to Help a Desoxyn Addict

man holding pill bottle
Desoxyn is a drug prescribed to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and, more rarely, as an emergent intervention for cases of intractable obesity. As a stimulant medication, it increases energy, alertness, and wakefulness 1,2.

You may be surprised to learn that Desoxyn is actually methamphetamine. It is the only remaining marketed pharmaceutical containing methamphetamine 1.

Stimulant abuse is a major problem in the U.S. More than 1.6 million people in the U.S. admitted to using stimulants, like methamphetamine, in the last month 4.


How Can I Get Someone I Love to Accept Help?

If you worry that someone close to you is one of the 1.6 million people abusing a stimulant, proceed compassionately but carefully. You are unlikely to help if you are overly confrontational or react strongly without a plan.

Learn About Stimulant Abuse

People abusing Desoxyn may refer to it in street terms like 1:

  • Meth.
  • Crank.
  • Speed.

You will fare better in attempting to positively approach a loved one if you do so from an educated standpoint.

You can explore information related to Desoxyn abuse and stimulant abuse, in general, to gain a better understanding of the larger issue and how your loved one is affected. First, note that your loved one may also be abusing methamphetamine that is illicitly manufactured, which may produce more intense and unpredictable effects than Desoxyn itself 4. They may also use other prescription stimulants, such as Adderall, or illicit drugs like cocaine in place of Desoxyn when it is not available, and thus give rise to additional symptoms. For more information on symptoms you might come across, see our Stimulants Abuse page.

You’ll also need to understand a general picture of substance abuse and addiction so that you have appropriate expectations. If you expect your loved one to quit immediately because you ask them to, you likely will be disappointed. Drug abuse can change the brain of the user over time, impair self-control, and make quitting without help an extremely challenging prospect 5.

Practice communication. Now is the time to approach your loved one. To do so, come from a position of love, support, and encouragement to increase your chances of success. Be aware that your loved one may not be honest with you because of the shame, fear, anger, and denial associated with their drug use.

During your communication 6:

  • Stay calm and patient. Being angry or judgmental will lead to defensiveness from your loved one.
  • Ask many questions to help elicit your loved one’s own feelings about their substance use.
  • Establish your role as an aid and teammate to encourage honesty.
  • Remind your loved one that you care about them a great deal and emphasize their strengths and positive traits.
  • Consistently state your view that professional treatment is needed to manage substance abuse.
  • Discuss what you want them to do, how you are willing to help, and what limits will be set if they choose not to get help.
Establish your role as an aid and teammate to encourage honesty.

If you need help communicating with your loved one in a positive way, there are avenues you can take to learn the skills to help motivate your loved one to find treatment while also getting support for yourself. These include:

  • Community reinforcement and family training—Specialized training that helps loved ones to identify issues that contribute to substance use, learn to communicate effectively, and learn to take care of themselves 7.
  • Family therapy—Therapy that involves close loved ones to heal the whole family unit and increase the chances of sustained recovery.
  • Support groups for loved ones of addicts (e.g., Al-Anon)—A supportive environment of people who have similar struggles in watching a loved one fight addiction.
Should I Try an Intervention?

People wanting to get their loved one into treatment often consider interventions as a way of doing so. A formal intervention is a planned meeting between the person engaging in substance use and the important people in their life. During this meeting, the loved ones will state how they have been negatively impacted by Desoxyn abuse and what they intend to do if use continues 5.

Strong emotions like anger and hostility may emerge due to the confrontational nature of the meeting 5. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) advises avoiding confrontational interventions like those you see on TV, in favor of steps like incentivizing your loved one to see a doctor about treatment. However, when the stakes are high and serious injury or death is likely to result, an intervention may be your best option.

To lessen the possibility that these negative emotions will arise and deter the meeting, you may wish to utilize the services of a professional interventionist. They can help you plan the event and ensure that communication stays on track for the best possible outcome.


What Can I Expect in Desoxyn Abuse Treatment?

The most intense use of Desoxyn could require inpatient detoxification services to manage symptoms of withdrawal, which can include 8:

  • Extreme depression with potential for suicidality.
  • Anger and aggression with risk for violence.

When the drug has been cleared from the body, the focus moves from managing withdrawal to treating the issues behind the addiction. Therapeutic approaches may include one or more of the following 8,9,10:

  • Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT)—A therapeutic style that links connections between thoughts, feelings, and behaviors to understand and prevent substance use.
  • Motivational interviewing (MI)—An approach that builds the addict’s desire to change and commit to actions that match their goals.
  • Contingency management (CM)—A treatment style that rewards and reinforces many behaviors related to recovery to build a strong association between abstaining from drugs and positive feelings.
people in group therapy session

The Matrix Model is a treatment designed exclusively for people abusing stimulants like methamphetamine, with encouraging rates of success. With the goal of building self-esteem and dignity, this model utilizes techniques from other treatments including elements of 10:

  • Relapse prevention.
  • Individual therapy.
  • Family therapy.
  • Education.
  • Drug tests.
  • Self-help groups.

Is Desoxyn Addictive?

Yes. Desoxyn is essentially methamphetamine, which is notoriously addictive. The drug’s abuse potential is well known, yet with its recognized, albeit limited therapeutic uses, the medication is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance.

Desoxyn is essentially methamphetamine, which is notoriously addictive.

Desoxyn’s addictive potential is linked to the drug’s effect on the brain. When consumed, Desoxyn and other stimulants trigger an increased release of neurotransmitters, including dopamine. The release of excess dopamine creates rewarding feelings that over time prompt the user to prioritize drug use over other activities, even as negative consequences mount 1,2,3.

What Are the Signs of Addiction?

According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, in 2014, of the 1.6 million that admitted to previous month stimulant abuse, about 570,000 were abusing methamphetamine.

If you’re worried about someone you love, first check for signs of Desoxyn intoxication. These typically include 1,8:

  • Increased energy.
  • Increased alertness.
  • Decreased appetite.
  • Euphoria.
  • Higher body temperature.

As use increases due to tolerance, people may show additional signs of abuse like 1,8:

  • Irritability.
  • Aggression.
  • Anxiety and panic.
  • Paranoia.
  • Excessive weight loss.

The person may show new or worsening signs of mental health disorders like manic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder, depression, and psychosis 8.

Am I Addicted to Desoxyn?

Acknowledging your addiction to Desoxyn can be much more complex than seeing a problem in another person, especially if you are prescribed the medication. However, certain signs can help you determine whether you have a problem.

You may be addicted to Desoxyn if you 5:

  • Take more of the substance than prescribed or in ways other than intended.
  • Have made unsuccessful attempts to end use.
  • Spend a lot of time, energy, and money trying to acquire and use Desoxyn.
  • Experience more conflict with people in your life because of your use.
  • Struggle to complete your responsibilities at home or work.
  • Do not feel well if you miss a dose or are without the drug.


Call Our Hotline Today

If you or someone you know needs help, it is time to take action. Addiction to methamphetamine can have severe and even fatal consequences. Call 1-888-744-0069 today.


References:

  1. Drug Enforcement Administration. (2013). Methamphetamine.
  2. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2014). Research Report Series: Prescription Drug Abuse.
  3. National Institute on Drug Abuse for Teens. (2016). Prescription Stimulant Medications (Amphetamines).
  4. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2015). Behavioral Health Trends in the United States: Results from the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
  5. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). What to Do If Your Adult Friend or Loved One Has a Problem with Drugs.
  6. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2015). Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse.
  7. Scruggs, S.M., Meyer, R, Kayo, R. (2014). Community Reinforcement and Family Training Support and Prevention.
  8. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders: Quick Guide for Clinicians.
  9. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). Drug Facts: Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction.
  10. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). Principles of Drug AddictionTreatment: A Research-Based Guide.

Cocaine Relapse

silhouette of man tired with his hands on his knees

According to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), approximately 913,000 Americans met the criteria for cocaine addiction as outlined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders within the 12 months prior to the survey 1. Cocaine is a psychostimulant with powerful effects on the brain’s limbic system, creating feelings of reward, pleasure, and motivation in users. Because cocaine is highly addictive, many people relapse due to strong cravings and uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms 2.


What Is a Relapse?

Relapse is defined in its broadest terms as suffering deterioration after experiencing improvement. In terms of drug addiction, a drug relapse refers to returning to drug use after a period of abstinence or sobriety. It is important to understand that relapsing does not mean that a person failed at recovery. On the contrary, many schools of thought consider relapse to be a part of the recovery process 3.

Relapse rates for cocaine addiction and other drugs are similar to those for chronic diseases such as asthma, diabetes, and hypertension. Like these diseases, addiction is chronic in nature and is often recurring. This means that relapse is not only possible but likely for most people completing drug addiction treatment. For this reason, substance abuse treatment is usually a continuous process. Relapsing doesn’t mean that treatment didn’t work; rather, it means that treatment may need to be reinstated 4.


Learn more about living a life in recovery. Discover how to find treatment.


Why Do People Relapse on Cocaine?

Cocaine relapse statistics indicate that relapsing on cocaine is relatively common. According to research, approximately 24% of people relapse back to weekly cocaine use within a year following treatment. Another 18% of people end up returning for treatment following a relapse. Cocaine relapse rates are typically higher among those with more severe addictive problems and those who attend addiction treatment for shorter periods of time 5.

Stress Risk
There are many reasons why a person may experience a cocaine relapse. Stress plays a large role in addiction relapse and may initiate cravings for the drug. As stress can increase the frequency with which cravings arise, a person may be more likely to give in to cravings, especially if they are not actively using other coping skills 6.

Terence T. Gorski doesn’t see relapse as a single event but rather a progressive process that is akin to knocking over one domino and experiencing the ripple effects that it creates until the last domino falls.

In this scenario, a person feels their only choice is to relapse and use drugs to cope. The first domino may be something as simple as a single stressful event or a mistake that leads to more stressors or poor choices, which ultimately leads to cocaine relapse 3.


Cocaine Relapse Warning Signs

Fortunately, there are many warning signs that typically occur during the relapse process. Those completing addiction treatment should be aware of the warning signs of cocaine relapse to help prevent one from occurring. Some of the most common warning signs include 3,5,7:

  • Not following up with aftercare programs (counseling, support groups, 12-step programs).
  • Feeling overly stressed and not dealing with it effectively (using healthy coping skills learned in treatment).
  • Experiencing an increase in drug cravings.
  • Engaging in other compulsive behaviors such as gambling, overeating, overworking, and over exercising.
  • Spending time with drug-using friends or going to places or events where you once used.
  • Feeling a lack of support from your family and friends in your desire to stay sober.
  • Return to addictive thinking and negative thoughts.
  • Bottling up emotions and isolating oneself from others.
  • Having a poor self-care routine (not eating healthy, sleeping well, or taking care of oneself).
  • Glamorizing past use and minimizing the reality of negative consequences.
  • Lying to others or engaging in secretive behavior.
  • Planning a relapse or looking for a relapse opportunity.

What to Do When You Relapse on Cocaine

Cocaine relapse is not the end of the line. Should a relapse occur, people shouldn’t react as if they’ve been given a green light for unbridled cocaine use. Rather, relapse is a stumbling block to longer-term recovery and should signal to the individual that some changes need to be made—renewed engagement with various treatment outlets can get someone immediately back on track. Diligent aftercare program participation following cocaine addiction treatment can make a big difference for someone struggling with fears of relapse, and can help that individual create a plan of action for what to do in the event of an actual relapse.

close up of a couple sitting and holding hands concerned after a relapse

If you have recently relapsed on cocaine, do not give up. Here are some steps you can take to get back on track toward long-term recovery 3,7:

  • Don’t beat yourself up. Practice forgiveness and compassion.
  • Monitor yourself for negative or extreme thinking. Remember the unhealthy thinking styles you likely learned about in cognitive behavioral therapy, and try to keep your thoughts realistic and positive.
  • Do not engage in all-or-nothing thinking that tells you because you relapsed once you have already failed and might as well keep using. Just because you had a relapse does not mean that you have to keep using.
  • Remind yourself of the reasons you quit using in the first place (the negative consequences of your drug use).
  • Reach out to a supportive person such as an addiction sponsor, a trusted friend, or a family member.
  • Attend a 12-step meeting or other related support group.
  • If you aren’t currently attending counseling, schedule an appointment with your counselor ASAP.
  • If you don’t already have one in place, create a relapse prevention plan to help prevent further relapses.

Going to Treatment After a Relapse

You are NOT a failure if treatment didn’t work the first time.

Sometimes after a relapse you or your support system (counselor, sponsor, psychiatrist, family, or friends) may agree that reentering treatment is the best course of action. This does not mean that you are a failure or that your treatment didn’t work the first time.

Cocaine relapse rates and statistics indicate that returning to treatment is a common occurrence. One research sample of more than 300 people who completed cocaine addiction treatment revealed that 44% of people were readmitted into a treatment program within 2.6 years after completing their initial treatment 8.

For more information on cocaine relapse, aftercare programs, and other addiction treatment options, contact our recovery support team for information and support at 1-888-744-0069.


How to Create an Effective Relapse Prevention Plan

To help create safeguards against relapse, it is crucial that people have an effective relapse prevention plan in place before completing treatment. Most rehabilitation centers and aftercare facilities assist patients in creating their relapse prevention plan before they discharge.

An effective relapse prevention plan typically includes some combination of the following elements 7:

  • Recognize and outline the early stages (warning signs) of a relapse.
  • Be aware of your obstacles to recovery and the tools and skills you have acquired to help you overcome them.
  • Know your triggers, and make a plan to avoid them when possible and to effectively cope with those you cannot avoid.
  • Have a specific plan in place to help you manage cravings (journaling, distraction method, urge surfing).
  • Expect setbacks, and be prepared to handle them appropriately.
  • Make a definitive plan to follow up with aftercare programs (12-step programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, group counseling, and learning mind-body relaxation and stress-management techniques).
  • Practice good self-care (adequate nutrition, sleep, exercise).
  • Write down a list of people, places, and situations you may need to avoid in order to prevent relapse.
  • Redefine fun. Have recreational activities and hobbies readily available for you to engage in to help prevent you from glorifying past drug use out of boredom.
  • Set healthy boundaries with others.
  • Have a list of people you can call upon for support and ask for help when needed.
  • Have a specific plan in place for how you will handle a relapse if it occurs.
To learn more about treatment options following a relapse, contact our recovery hotline by phone at 1-888-744-0069.


References:

  1. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). What is the Scope of Cocaine Use in the United States?
  2. Nestler, E. (2005). The Neurobiology of Cocaine Addiction. Science and Practice Perspectives, 3(1): 4–10.
  3. Gorski, T. (2001). Understanding Relapse. GORSKI-CENAPS Web Publications.
  4. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2012). How Effective is Drug Addiction Treatment?
  5. Simpson, D., Joe, G., et. al. (1999). A national evaluation of treatment outcomes for cocaine dependence. Archive of General Psychiatry, 56(6): 507–14.
  6. Sinha, R. (2007). The Role of Stress in Addiction Relapse. Current Psychiatry Reports, 9(5), 388–95.
  7. Melemis, S. (2015). Relapse Prevention and the Five Rules of Recovery. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine, 88(3): 325–32.
  8. Grella, C., Hser, Y. & Hsieh, S. (2003). Predictors of Drug Treatment Re-entry Following Relapse to Cocaine Use in DATOS. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25(3): 145–54.

 

Morphine Overdose

morphine user in distress sitting on porch

Morphine is a powerful opioid pain medication that can have life-threatening effects in those who abuse it. It is an opiate analgesic, and one of many commonly used narcotic painkillers 1. Morphine works to reduce severe pain by changing the way the central nervous system (CNS) (including the brain, brain stem, and spinal cord) responds to pain located throughout the body 1.


Why Is Morphine Dangerous?

Opioid abuse and overdose is common in all demographics, with statistics showing that there is no significant difference in the prevalence of morphine abuse between genders or races. Morphine and other semi-synthetic opioids account for more overdose deaths than any other opioid.

While morphine is frequently administered in a hospital setting where patients are closely monitored, some patients are also prescribed morphine for home use. Morphine is available as an injectable solution, extended-release capsule, immediate-release tablet, and oral solution and is intended to treat pain that is inadequately managed with non-opioid medications such as NSAIDs. Many patients who are prescribed morphine suffer from constant pain rather than pain that comes and goes or is associated with physical activity 1.

And while morphine can help people suffering from chronic physical pain when used as prescribed, if it is used in excess or used by someone without legitimate pain, dependence development, addiction, and overdose are definitive risks. In fact, morphine addiction and overdoses are on the rise in the United States according to recent reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—since 2000, the rate of opioid overdoses has increased by 200% 2.

In 2014, the rate of overdose deaths caused by natural and semi-synthetic opioids like morphine, oxycodone, and hydrocodone was 3.8 per 100,000 2. Unfortunately, many of these deaths could have been avoided had people known more about the risk factors of morphine use and the signs and symptoms of overdose.


Abuse of most substances produce noticeable signs and symptoms. Learn how to identify the physical or behavioral symptoms.

Signs and Symptoms of Morphine Overdose

Even though morphine is an FDA-approved medication for pain treatment, its use is associated with serious and sometimes life-threatening side effects—even when taken as prescribed.Side effects most commonly occur within the first 1 to 3 days of taking morphine or whenever a dose is increased 1.

Serious side effects to be aware of include 1:

  • A bluish or purplish hue to the skin.
  • Agitation or irritability.
  • Changes in heartbeat (either rapid, irregular, or slowed).
  • Confusion.
  • Difficulty urinating or pain during urination.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Extreme sleepiness.
  • Fainting.
  • Fever.
  • Hallucinations (either visual or auditory).
  • Irregular menstruation.
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Loss of coordination.
  • Muscle stiffness.
  • Nausea or vomiting.
  • Nervousness.
  • Seizures.
  • Significant changes in mood or behavior.
  • Small pupils.
  • Stomach pain or severe cramps.
  • Sweating.
  • Twitching.
  • Unresponsiveness.

Overdose Symptoms

Ignoring significantly severe symptoms like those listed above could have life-threatening consequences if you continue to abuse morphine. If an overdose occurs, you will likely see the previously listed symtpoms, as well as 3:

  • A cold or clammy feel to the skin.
  • Bluish hue in the fingertips and lips.
  • Constricted (small) pupils.
  • Blurry vision.
  • Nausea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Severe constipation.
  • Severely slowed or irregular breathing.
  • Slow heartbeat.
  • Limp muscles.
  • Severe sleepiness.
  • Loss of consciousness.
  • Coma.

If you are concerned that you or someone you know may be experiencing a morphine overdose, immediately call emergency medical care.


Risk Factors

Woman laying on couch experiencing morphine risk factors

People who suffer from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), chronic bronchitis, emphysema, or other respiratory issues are at greater risk of suffering from complications while taking morphine since the drug can further impair normal breathing. It is extremely important to monitor morphine doses and protect against overdose if you or someone you care for has any of these conditions.

Other risk factors for complications include 1:

  • Head injury.
  • Any condition that increases intracranial pressure (pressure on the brain).
  • Malnourishment.
  • Polysubstance use.

Polysubstance use involves the simultaneous use of morphine with alcohol or another drug—a combination that can result in a dangerous exacerbation of each individual substance’s effects. According to a 2016 report from the FDA, a review of medical cases has found that more and more patients are combining opioid medications like morphine with other drugs that also depress the CNS. When combined, these drugs can lead to slowed, labored, or altogether stopped breathing and death. In particular, the FDA warns doctors and patients against taking morphine with benzodiazepines, which are commonly prescribed to treat seizures, muscle spasm, and anxiety. Other drugs that depress the CNS include alcohol and other opioids such as heroin and prescription pain killers 4.

Morphine can be habit-forming for some people. Due to the risk of dependence and addiction, it is of the utmost importance that individuals taking morphine monitor their doses closely, time their doses, and report their morphine use to their doctors at regular appointments. Anyone who has ever experienced alcohol abuse, other substance abuse, or mental illness is at a greater risk of misusing morphine 1.

It is also possible to overdose on morphine by chewing, crushing, or dissolving the tablets. Extended-release morphine tablets are designed to break down slowly in the digestive system to provide long-lasting pain relief. By breaking the tablets open or even splitting a tablet in half to take a smaller dose, your body may absorb too much of the drug at once, which may lead to an overdose 1.


What to Do If You Overdose on Morphine

If you or someone you know may be suffering from morphine overdose, call for emergency medical help right away. If possible, tell emergency personnel 3:

    Do not give the person anything to make them vomit. If the person stops breathing, perform mouth-to-mouth breathing to continue supplying oxygen to the lungs 3. Depending on the amount of morphine ingested and how it was consumed, these symptoms may worsen. It is critical that the afflicted person get medical attention immediately.

    Most cases of morphine overdose are treated with activated charcoal to prevent continued absorption of any drug remaining in the stomach, breathing support (such as oxygen, intubation, or a ventilator), and intravenous fluids. In severe overdose situations, naloxone—an opioid receptor blocker—may be administered as a morphine antidote 3.


    Preventing Morphine Overdose

    Morphine causes feelings of euphoria and pain relief, so it is a drug that many people abuse to experience its pleasurable effects 5. However, this type of misuse often leads to addiction. People who have become dependent on morphine for pain relief or who are addicted to morphine are more likely to experience an overdose. If you or someone you care about may be dependent on morphine, it is important to seek substance abuse recovery treatment as soon as possible.

    There are numerous addiction treatment centers all over the country ready to help you overcome morphine addiction. You can choose from a treatment center that is near your home so you can remain close to friends and family, or you may choose to travel to an addiction treatment center that offers a change of environment.

    Inpatient treatment programs allow you to reside at the treatment facility for the duration of the program and receive around-the-clock care. This is a preferred option for people who are going through morphine detox or withdrawal. Due to the dangers and extreme discomfort of morphine withdrawal, a medically supervised detox program can help you get through this challenging stage safely.

    Outpatient treatment programs vary in time commitment—from 4-8 hours a day, 5 days a week, to 2-4 hours a day, 1-3 days a week—and allow you to live at home while attending treatment. This is often the choice for busy people who cannot take large portions of time away from their family or other work or school obligations.

    Addiction treatment centers offer a wide variety of treatment options, including individual counseling, group therapy, family therapy, couples counseling, skills building, and education. Most programs use theoretical perspectives that have been proven effective in treating addiction, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing. Drug rehab facilities want you to succeed in your recovery, and both inpatient and outpatient programs offer customized treatment to target your unique needs.

    By understanding the dangers associated with morphine use and abuse and getting help for a morphine addiction, you can help prevent morphine overdose. Call us today at 1-888-744-0069 to speak with a treatment consultant about your recovery options.


    References:

    1. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2016). Morphine.
    2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2016). Increases in Drug and Opioid Overdose Deaths — United States, 2000–2014.
    3. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2015). Morphine Overdose.
    4. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. (2016). FDA Drug Safety Communication: FDA warns about serious risks and death when combining opioid pain or cough medicines with benzodiazepines; requires its strongest warning.
    5. Drug Enforcement Agency. (n.d.). Drug Fact Sheet: Morphine.

    Vyvanse Overdose

    Vyvanse Overdose

    Vyvanse is a medication prescribed to manage ADHD and the compulsive behaviors associated with binge eating disorders 1. However, as with any medication, taking too much Vyvanse can have serious side effects. Furthermore, people have become addicted to Vyvanse when they use it for reasons other than controlling ADHD or binge eating disorder, or when they do not use the drug as prescribed.

    The misuse of prescription stimulant medications like Vyvanse is a growing problem in the United States, as a report by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) noted that emergency room visits for overdoses and negative side effects of stimulant medications nearly tripled from 2005 to 2010 2. In addition, nearly half of those emergency room visits were for people who did not have a prescription for the medications.

    Stimulant-related emergency room visits were most common among males and people aged 18 to 25. However, the rate of increased emergency-room Among users 18 and older, the number of emergency-room visits nearly quadrupled from 2005 to 2010 2.


    No matter how you cut it, even short-term stimulant abuse can have disastrous consequences for the user.

    Signs and Symptoms of Vyvanse Overdose

    A number of health effects—which range from unpleasant to severe—may be seen in cases of Vyvanse overdose. A Vyvanse overdose may lead to cardiac events as well as sudden death. Signs and symptoms of an overdose may also include 1,3:

    • Uncontrollable shaking.
    • Seeing or hearing things that are not there (hallucinations).
    • Feelings of panic.
    • Aggressive behaviors.
    • Nausea and vomiting.
    • Confusion and disorientation.
    • Fever.
    • Depression.
    • Restlessness.
    • Severe insomnia.
    • Weakness.
    • Fast heartbeat.
    • Seizures.
    • Coma.
    • Death.

    Because ADHD is a relatively common condition and children are routinely prescribed Vyvanse or similar stimulant medications, many people tend to underestimate the dangers associated with these powerful drugs. Though the risks may be low, Vyvanse has led to sudden death in adults and children, even when taken as prescribed. Vyvanse overdose is an unequivocally serious medical issue that requires emergency intervention, since it may lead to seizures, heart attacks, coma, and even death. Vyvanse can also create hallucinations, psychosis, and mania, even when taken as prescribed. Misusing Vyvanse can significantly the risk of these serious psychiatric side effects 3.

    People who become addicted to Vyvanse demonstrate a loss of over how much or how often they take Vyvanse.

    Risk Factors

    Vyvanse is a powerful medication, and while it is therapeutic for many, it also possesses a real potential for abuse, dependence, and addiction. A person places themselves at high risk for addiction development when they abuse Vyvanse.

    People who become addicted to Vyvanse demonstrate a loss of control over how much or how often they take Vyvanse. They also typically crave the drug and continue to use it despite negative consequences of using, which may include 4:

    • Employment problems.
    • Legal difficulties.
    • Family conflict.

    As with any drug, using higher and higher doses of Vyvanse increases the risk of an overdose. The reasons around this have to do with tolerance that develops after regular use, which leads a person to take larger doses to feel the high they felt when first using. Those high doses alone can create an increased risk for overdose.

    Then, if repeated use continues, a person may develop significant physiological dependence, which is characterized (among other signs) by withdrawal symptoms when they stop using. When unpleasant withdrawal symptoms surface—depression and extreme fatigue, for instance—the person takes the drug again to “feel normal” and places themselves at a greater risk for adverse effects, particularly if they take an extra-large dose in hope of eliminating their symptoms that are making them feel so miserable 1.

    The danger for overdose is also greater after a time of abstinence because their body’s tolerance for Vyvanse began to return to its pre-use levels. So when the person resumes using the drug at the same amount they did when their tolerance was high, the body can no longer handle it like it used to, and overdose often results.

    Many people also engage in polysubstance abuse, abusing other drugs along with Vyvanse. Any time a person does this, their risk of overdose rises substantially due to the combined effects of the drugs taken together. Though there is little information on the specific combination of Vyvanse and other drugs, people often use other drugs with stimulants to enhance their high, and any polysubstance abuse increases the risk of experiencing adverse side effects 5.

    Emergency-room visits for stimulant overdoses, such as those caused by Adderall, Vyvanse, Strattera, and Concerta, also involved another drug in about 63% of the cases. In 45% of these multi-drug–use cases, the drugs were also other prescription drugs. The most common prescription drugs taken along with stimulants include anti-anxiety medications and narcotic painkillers. Overall, 19% of people reported using alcohol along with stimulants. In 21% of the visits, street drugs were involved, with marijuana noted as the most common street drug used 2.


    What to Do If You Overdose on Vyvanse

    A Vyvanse overdose is a serious situation with potentially deadly consequences. If you or a loved one experiences signs or symptoms of a Vyvanse overdose, seek emergency medical treatment immediately—do not assume that the symptoms will go away and call 911. Accidental overdoses are often a sign that a person has a serious problem with Vyvanse addiction, so after the medical crisis has passed, getting assessed for a substance use disorder is wise.


    Preventing Vyvanse Overdose

    Treatment for Vyvanse Overdose

    A good way to prevent a Vyvanse overdose is to take it only when a doctor prescribes it for you and exactly as prescribed, never doubling up on doses or taking more than the prescribed dose. Alcohol and street drugs are dangerous when mixed with Vyvanse and significantly increase the risk of an overdose. Also, a person should only take Vyvanse and other prescription drugs together when under a doctor’s supervision.

    If you or your loved one exhibit the symptoms of Vyvanse addiction, seek a treatment consultation now to confirm a diagnosis and perhaps spare yourself a Vyvanse overdose. Many treatment centers can help treat a Vyvanse addiction, from inpatient treatment in which you have 24/7 supervision, to outpatient treatment in which you live at home and attend therapy and groups during the day or evenings.

    A treatment professional can help you determine your need for inpatient treatment, which depends on many factors, such as the presence of polysubstance abuse, underlying health issues, co-occurring psychiatric disorders, and the severity of your addiction to Vyvanse.

    Both inpatient and outpatient treatment programs provide addiction assessment and supportive counseling, and some provide medical supervision. They help a person safely withdraw from Vyvanse while managing the aspects of physical dependence, and then provide ongoing therapy that offers coping skills to support the person in avoiding relapse into abuse and addiction.

    Many different therapeutic approaches exist for treating addiction. The most common ones include:

    • Cognitive behavioral therapy(CBT).
    • Motivational interviewing(MI).
    • The Matrix Model.
    • Contingency management.

    Generally, group therapy is the most common format in treatment programs, but certain programs weigh individual counseling more heavily than others.

    Regardless of the specifics of the approach, therapy to treat Vyvanse addiction often focuses on providing and strengthening coping skills, relapse prevention, and family dynamics, as well as encouraging patients to attend a 12-step program (e.g., Narcotics Anonymous) 4,5.

    If you or someone you love has an addiction to a prescription stimulant medication like Vyvanse, call us today at 1-888-744-0069 and speak with a treatment consultant who can walk you through your treatment options.


    References:

    1. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2016). Lisdexamfetamine.
    2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). The DAWN Report.
    3. U.S. National Library of Medicine. (2016). Vyvanse-lisdexamfetamine dimesylate capsule.
    4. National Institute on Drug Abuse. (2016). Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction.
    5. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (1999). Treatment for Stimulant Use Disorders.
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