The Effects of Ketamine Use
- Table of ContentsPrint
- Is Ketamine Harmful?
- Short-Term Effects of Ketamine
- Side Effects
- Long-Term Effects of Ketamine
- Ketamine Dependence
- Ketamine Withdrawal Treatment
Is Ketamine Harmful?
Like its sister drug PCP, ketamine is a dissociative anesthetic, and it's popular on the party scene thanks to its high and dissociative effects. However, it's easy to get ketamine abuse wrong because of its potency; it's more powerful than speed or coke weight for weight, so it's easy to accidentally overdose.
Ketamine is typically injected or snorted, but it can be smoked or taken in pill form. The effects of smoking it or swallowing it tend to be less intense than directly injecting it. In some cases, it's used as a date rape drug, as it's odorless and colorless.
Short-Term Effects of Ketamine
Ketamine produces an abrupt high that lasts for about an hour. It starts around 2 to 5 minutes after the dose has been smoked or swallowed. With injection, it happens around 30 seconds after the injection has occurred.
The first feeling of the high the user will get is an overwhelming feeling of relaxation, sometimes described as a full-body buzz. Some users feel like they’re floating and some even describe it as being out of their bodies. Many experience hallucinations that can last longer than the anesthetic effects.
Higher doses can produce more intense effects, with users reporting complete and utter detachment from their bodies. The effects are similar to those described by people who have had near-death experiences, and it's described as being in the "K-hole".
The drug does, of course, have side effects, and these can be quite profound. Short-term side effects include bad hallucinations. As with all psychotropic drugs, the pleasantness of the hallucination depends on the user's state of mind, and if the user is seeking to escape unhappiness, the hallucinations are likely to be unpleasant.
Naturally, the side effects include:
- Disorientation and general confusion due to the drug's anesthetic nature.
- Increased heart rate.
- Elevated blood pressure.
Large doses of ketamine can result in what some describe as the "K-hole," which can include intense and unpleasant visual and auditory hallucinations coupled with marked derealization and a frightening detachment from reality.
Perhaps more acutely problematic, ketamine users can also become quite nauseated. If this progresses to vomiting, it can be very dangerous, as those in the midst of state of dissociated confusion frequently end up supine—presenting a serious choking hazard. If you do see someone on ketamine, take a moment to roll them on their side or into the recovery position if possible to prevent this from happening. Promptly call 911 to get emergency medical assistance.
Long-Term Effects of Ketamine
Powdered ketamine is often cut with other drugs, so it's very hard to tell what the long-term effects can be as interactions can be very unpredictable. Consequently, the long-term effects of ketamine are varied, but they fall into several main areas.
As with any anesthetic, ketamine reduces — or even eliminates — pain. It's hard for users to tell whether they've injured themselves, so they can end up hurting themselves severely. Some people have suffered from broken legs and effectively crippled themselves because they couldn't tell that something wasn't right. Walking on a broken leg can result in compound fractures, penetration of the skin, sepsis, and serious nerve damage.
Once the effects of the drug have worn off, users might experience severe abdominal pain. It can also cause thickening of the bladder and urinary tract, and this can force some long-term addicts to have their bladders removed as the walls are too thick and prevent urine from passing through.
Other issues include kidney problems, which are caused by the drug's interaction with the kidneys as it is reduced into its metabolites.
Amphetamines should never be mixed with ketamine because they can cause very high blood pressure.
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Although the high of ketamine is extremely pleasant, it can lead to serious dependence. While you can build up a high tolerance to the drug without experiencing withdrawal, if your life is revolving around ketamine, you need to seek help. Ketamine detox doesn't have to result in withdrawal symptoms.
If you find that you're in trouble with the law as a result of using ketamine and don't want to give it up, you may well have an addiction. You might find it's causing you severe financial difficulties, or you might realize it has resulted in you spending more money than you can afford on it.
You may also have experienced severe side effects, such as broken bones on it, but still be taking the drug. Alternatively, you might be committing illegal or morally questionable acts because of it. However, it manifests itself, if you have an addiction to ketamine, you need to seek help.
Ketamine Withdrawal Treatment
Ketamine withdrawal treatment aims to help you get off the drug and stay off it. First, you'll likely undergo withdrawal. Some of the literature in the addiction treatment sphere mentions cases of reported anxiety and/or depression following cessation of ketamine use. But, for many ketamine abusers, withdrawal isn't a major issue as ketamine doesn't produce a clinically significant withdrawal syndrome.
This minimizes the need for close medical supervision throughout a period of withdrawal – allowing those in recovery to move forward and focus on the second stage of their treatment.
Counseling and psychotherapy help you to realize how and why you're abusing ketamine. Whether you have depression or find it hard to de-stress, psychotherapy can help you address the central underlying reasons you take ketamine. Counseling can help you resist the lure of the high, and it can give you the skills to find healthy ways to relax and enjoy yourself without turning to drug use. CBT (cognitive behavioral therapy) is particularly valuable for this.
The final stage is, of course, sustained recovery, and this is often the hardest stage. This is often the stage where relapse (going back to using the drug) happens, but with support and the skills learned in treatment, you can reduce the risk of this happening.