What Is Crystal Meth?
Street Names for Crystal Meth
Crystal meth is known by many slang terms including:
Crystal methamphetamine (crystal meth) is a powerful central nervous stimulant with highly addictive properties.
Crystal meth is the illicit, crystalline form of methamphetamine. Legally manufactured methamphetamine is classified as a Schedule II drug by the United States Controlled Substances Act, meaning:
- It has a high potential for abuse.
- It has a currently accepted medical use.
- Abuse of it may lead to severe psychological or physical dependence.
Pharmaceutical methamphetamine is used in medications that treat Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and, infrequently, in cases of severe obesity.
The crystal form of methamphetamine – the street drug crystal meth – has no medical applications, and is exclusively abused as a recreational substance.
Signs and Symptoms
Crystal meth is a powerful stimulant. No matter what route of administration is used—injected, smoked or inhaled—an individual will experience a rapid onset of its effects.
When under the influence of meth, a person may present with any number of symptoms:
- Increased physical activity.
- Increased blood pressure and breathing rate.
- Elevated body temperature.
- Dilated pupils.
- Heavy sweating.
- Loss of appetite.
- Paranoia or irritability.
- Fleeting euphoria.
- Unpredictable behavior.
- Doing repetitive, meaningless tasks.
- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea.
- Dry mouth, bad breath.
- Uncontrollable jaw clenching.
Some other troubling signs of methamphetamine abuse include:
- Violent behavior.
- Respiratory or airway abnormalities.
- Persistently elevated heart rate, placing users at risk for heart attack.
The following video from National Geographic discusses what exactly happens in your brain when you smoke crystal meth and why it is so addictive.
Credit: National Geographic
Effects of Crystal Meth Abuse
Crystal meth works by affecting the communication chemicals dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin in the brain and activating the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.
The effects of crystal meth in recreational doses are powerful and can lead to psychological and physical addiction. The Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse reports that users initially report feeling confident and powerful, with limitless energy, increased productivity, enhanced sexual performance, and decreased appetite.
Once these initial euphoric effects wear off, however, the experience can take a bad turn–with chronic abuse leading to serious and immediate negative consequences:
- Mental confusion, psychosis, and paranoia.
- Extreme weight loss.
- Picking at your skin, resulting in scabs.
- Tooth decay—or, “meth mouth”.
- Sensation of insects crawling on/under your skin.
- Jaw clenching.
- Respiratory disease.
- Heart disease.
- Cardiac arrest.
Other potential long-term health effects of crystal meth abuse include:
- Microvascular hemorrhage.
- Eye damage.
- Vision impairment.
- Markedly disrupted sleep patterns.
- Mood disorders.
- Reproductive health issues.
- Impaired sexual motivation and performance.
- Dental health problems.
Crystal Meth Abuse Treatment
Treatment for methamphetamine abuse may take on multiple forms, depending on the individual’s needs. The first phase of treatment, detoxification, may proceed more smoothly with careful monitoring by an experienced medical staff. Withdrawal can be profoundly uncomfortable, and can sometimes elicit depressive episodes—relapse risks are high during the period of acute detox.
Acute symptoms of abuse are often treated with medications to alleviate the discomfort of side effects and withdrawal:
- Hyperactivity, agitation or psychotic features—If needed, may be treated with a dopamine-blocking medication, such as haloperidol–an antipsychotic that decreases abnormal excitement in the brain.
- Other behavioral and psychiatric effects—Benzodiazepine drugs such as diazepam (Valium) may be used to relieve anxiety, muscle spasms, and seizures.
Dependence and addiction can often prove difficult to manage, due to high rates of dropout and relapse, severe craving, protracted mental health issues (including depression and psychosis), and the inability of some users to experience pleasure in the absence of the drug.
Currently, there is no widely accepted model for crystal meth abuse treatment. In the past, antidepressants were utilized, but this treatment was not found to be especially effective in the long run.
Modern treatment programs use various forms of counseling or therapy to address the issues surrounding abuse and dependence. Therapies that have been found to be effective are:
- Contingency Management—Uses positive reinforcement to keep patients abstinent, leading to longer periods of drug abstinence.
- Cognitive Behavioral Therapy—Examines the role of substance abuse in a patient’s life and develops skills to avoid relapse; includes the Matrix Model approach.
- The Matrix Model—Incorporates cognitive-behavioral therapy, addiction education, relapse prevention education, 12-step or self-help programs, and weekly urine tests to assure abstinence. This method has been found to be very effective during treatment.
Teen Crystal Meth Abuse
Adolescents are at particular risk for the dangers of crystal meth abuse. Human brains continue to develop until the mid-20s, and powerful drugs such as crystal meth can have a major impact on brain development.
Teens may also be unaware of the risks. In fact, though many youth users acknowledge the health risks and social costs of heavy use, they still associate the use of the drug more positively than heroin or crack cocaine.
Drug education regarding the dangers that come with abuse is a vital part of abuse prevention. Talking with your teen about the risks associated with use can help prevent youth methamphetamine abuse.
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