Flakka Abuse Side Effects, Symptoms, and Addiction Treatment
What Is Flakka?
Flakka is a relatively new synthetic designer drug that is gaining in popularity, particularly in Florida, Texas, and Ohio. This man-made stimulant is also commonly referred to as “gravel” on the street due to its white, crystal-like chunks.
Flakka belongs to a group of synthetic drugs known as synthetic cathinones. The synthetic stimulant compound contained in Flakka is known as alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone (alpha-PVP). The drug action of alpha-PVP is similar to that of cocaine and, in 2014, it was banned and labeled as a Schedule I controlled substance by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA).
Flakka is a highly potent synthetic stimulant. It can be:
It is also possible for Flakka to be put into an e-cigarette and vaped. The effects of the drug can last as little as just a few hours, but they can also continue for several days.
Signs and Symptoms of Flakka Use
Flakka is associated with cocaine-like changes in behavior. Behavior changes induced by Flakka use may include:
- Extreme agitation.
- Aberrant and bizarre behavior.
- Delirium or intense confusion.
- Psychotic symptoms, delusions, and hallucinations.
Flakka’s similarity to bath salts implies a high potential to cause violent behavior and other negative psychosocial consequences when taken, especially when used in high doses. This may lead to unintentional injury and various forms of trauma that may be severe.
Side Effects of Flakka Use
Additional adverse side effects of synthetic cathinones like Flakka include:
- Changes in heart rate.
- Heart attacks.
- Cardiomyopathy (damage to heart muscle).
- Death due to cardiac complications.
Those who spend time with someone who uses or abuses Flakka may notice that the person exhibits personality changes over time. Users may become more disinhibited, impulsive, and/or agitated. The close relationship between Flakka and bath salts suggests that use of this drug may also lead to increased risk of uncontrollable or excessive movement and hyperactivity.
Flakka Treatment Program Types
The neurological effects of Flakka toxicity may be treated with drugs such as benzodiazepines to counteract agitation and aberrant behavior. The cardiac effects of these drugs can be addressed with the intravenous administration of low-dose norepinephrine (to normalize heart rate and blood pressure) over several hours (typically not more than 6).
Supportive measures accompanied by monitoring and follow-up over several weeks are recommended to ensure full recovery.
Targeted substance abuse recovery for those experiencing problems with Flakka use may include inpatient rehab or outpatient treatment.
Inpatient treatment is also known as rehabilitative or residential treatment and requires that the patient remains within a facility to receive treatment. This type of treatment is typically effective because it pulls the patient out of his or her everyday environment so that they can put all of their focus and energy into recovery.
Outpatient treatment is received in medical centers or other treatment facilities that the patient visits regularly as part of their normal life. This type of treatment typically incorporates elements of inpatient rehab but allows the patient to live at home while seeking care.
Addiction Therapy Types
Therapy for drug abuse may take the form of psychosocial treatments such as:
- Counseling—in the form of both individual and group therapy.
- Contingency management (an incentive-based system designed to promote abstinence or compliance to a treatment program).
- Cognitive behavioral therapy.
In some cases, patients may also require pharmacologic treatment. This is known as medication-assisted treatment and is administered under supervision to reduce cravings, bolster abstinence, and treat symptoms such as psychosis and agitation.
Patients recovering from cathinone toxicity may also require ongoing care to regain functional status lost in the course of adverse effects on the heart or cardiovascular system.
Teen Flakka Abuse
Thanks to the legal or semi-legal status of this drug, it may be more accessible to younger people at risk for drug use and abuse.
Until recently, synthetic cathinones were widely available from online retailers. Preliminary data from the Monitoring the Future (MTF) study indicates that the 2014 prevalence of bath salts use among 8th graders appeared to have declined in comparison to the previous year, but remained constant among 10th and 12th graders. Clearly, synthetic substances like these continue to be a problem within a younger demographic.
To prevent teen drug use, it’s important to talk to your child about substance abuse and clearly explain that the legal status of a drug does not ensure its safety or negate its potential to lead to addiction.