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The Effects of Xanax Use

  1. Table of ContentsPrint
  2. About Xanax
  3. Short-Term Effects
  4. Side Effects
  5. Lasting Health Effects
  6. Xanax Dependency
  7. Treatment for Addiction

Tired man with Xanax

About Xanax

Xanax (generic name: alprazolam) is a powerful benzodiazepine drug that was first introduced in 1976. The medication comes in tablet form or an extended-release capsule.

It is the most frequently prescribed benzodiazepine drug in the US, with about 49 million prescriptions written in 2011. It is prescribed at much higher rates than other benzodiazepines such as:

  • Ativan (27 million prescriptions).
  • Klonopin (nearly 27 million prescriptions).
  • Valium (about 15 million prescriptions).
  • Restoril (about 8.5 prescriptions).

When taken as prescribed, it has potent and therapeutic anti-anxiety, anti-convulsant and sedative effects. The substance is often prescribed for mental health disorders related to anxiety, including:

  • Generalized anxiety disorder.
  • Panic disorder.
  • Social anxiety disorder.
  • Various phobias.

Benzodiazepines all share many similar properties, with the biggest difference being the speed of onset and the duration of the effects. Xanax is a drug that acts quickly in the body with most of the desired effects occurring within the first hour of use. The total effects from the drug typically will last for at least 6 hours.

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Short-Term Effects

When taken as prescribed, the short-term effects of Xanax are beneficial to many individuals. It has the potential to reduce the physical tension, restlessness, and feelings of unease common with anxiety.

You don't have to use it for a long time to begin experiencing some of the negative effects of the medication. Some of the common effects of Xanax are trouble with cognitive skills and difficulty producing words properly. People using the prescription drug may slur their speech and sound like they are intoxicated when they speak.

When you use Xanax in larger quantities, the effects become more dramatic. Some people also become confused or disoriented when they take the medication.

Beware of fake Xanax pills. Learn more about this deadly trend.

Side Effects

All prescription medications have side effects, including Xanax. Even adhering to prescribed dosing and scheduling can give rise to multiple side effects—with some being more serious than others. Some of the common side effects of Xanax include:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Headaches.
  • Fatigue.
  • Dizziness.
  • Difficulty concentrating.
  • Dry mouth.
  • Changes in sex drive.
  • Inability to perform sexually.
  • Increased salivation.

  • Weight changes.
  • Difficulty urinating.
  • Constipation.
  • Skin rashes.
  • Seizures.
  • Depression.
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Memory problems.
  • Unusual changes in your mood.



Overdose can occur when someone takes more than their prescribed dose, takes the prescribed dose on a more rapid schedule, or when someone has recently started or restarted use of the substance. Signs of benzodiazepine overdose can include:

  • Blurred vision.
  • Slurred speech.
  • Weakness.
  • Respiratory depression.
  • Coma.

Overdose on Xanax becomes increasingly likely if used in conjunction with other depressant substances, including alcohol.

When you see the signs of an overdose, don't wait. Learn what to do at our blog, Taking Action: How to Intervene During an Overdose.


Credit: Fox 47 News

Lasting Health Effects

Chronic use or abuse of sedatives is associated with:

  • Cognitive deficits.
  • Delirious states.
  • Depression.
  • Psychotic experiences.
  • Aggressive and impulsive behavior.

People who use Xanax for an extended period of time can experience long-term side effects. One of the common long-term side effects  is memory impairment. While the impairment is mild and it mostly affects your short-term memory, it can impart a lasting effect. This occurs because it becomes difficult to maintain the needed levels of attention and concentration to receive and retain information from conversations or material that is read or observed.

Another pronounced long-term effect is sedation. It is possible that people who use Xanax may experience periods of sedation that last up to 4 days. This sedation can be exacerbated by mixing Xanax with alcohol, Since each substance serves as a depressant, their combined effects are amplified. Because of this—and because of the aforementioned overdose risk—using alcohol while taking any benzodiazepine is never recommended.

Xanax Dependency

If you continually use Xanax, especially in larger quantities, you can develop a chemical dependency to the medication. When this happens, your body doesn't function properly without it. It is possible to become physically dependent on the drug even if you use it as prescribed.

Some people begin using it as an experiment to experience the  high. When you take Xanax, it relaxes your entire body and helps you sleep better. People who take Xanax for an extended amount of time may build up a tolerance for the drug. When tolerance occurs, your body requires a larger dose or an increased frequency of use to achieve the same or similar effect that the substance had on you when you began taking it.

If you continually use Xanax, especially in larger quantities, you can eventually develop a chemical dependency to the medication. When this happens, your body doesn't function properly without it. Of note, it is possible – if not likely – for someone to become physically dependent on the drug even when used as prescribed.

You can also experience withdrawal symptoms when you stop using Xanax. Some users may continue taking it to avoid the onset of these unpleasant, even life-threatening withdrawal symptoms. This may be an indication of addiction. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, addiction occurs when a chemical dependency is combined with a strong desire to consume the substance.

Potential for Abuse and Addiction

Like most benzodiazepines, it has great potential for tolerance, addiction, abuse, and dependence when used long-term. According to the U.S. National Library of Medicine, Xanax can become addictive if the medication is used in large quantities or for a prolonged period of time. Despite its potential for benefit, the medication also has various side effects that can occur, which may prove dangerous.

Adding to the danger associated with use is the risk of physical injury if the medication is suddenly stopped. The harm usually comes in the form of severe seizures and convulsions, and should always been considered as a risk in those who've taken a benzodiazepine for any considerable length of time.

 Withdrawal Symptoms

The negative effects of Xanax withdrawal are counter to the desired effects of the drug. They include:

  • Insomnia.
  • Muscle tension.
  • Paresthesias or numbness/tingling in the extremities.
  • Digestive upset.
  • Depression.
  • Anxiety.
  • Tremors.
  • Seizures.

Treatment for Addiction

When you first arrive at a treatment center, you begin the detoxification process according to the duration, dose, and frequency of your usage. It takes about a week for your body to detoxify from Xanax. During this time, the medication will be reduced and removed from your body. You might experience the above listed withdrawal symptoms at this point.

Depending on your situation, it might be recommended to end your Xanax use altogether or be weaned off over the course of several weeks.

Hospitals, detoxification centers, and rehab centers have trained medical staff on hand to help you cope with your withdrawal symptoms. If your symptoms are persistent, the staff can administer medication to help the symptoms subside and aid your comfort.

Once the detoxification process is over, your treatment will shift to include addressing the reasons behind your use and will generally include some forms of therapy, such as cognitive behavioral therapy and counseling (individual and group). They may also use other techniques such as contingency management, which incentivizes positive behaviors.

Outpatient treatment programs offer more flexibility than inpatient programs. However, some people need the additional structure that an inpatient program provides. It's important that you review all of your options and choose a program that's right for your physical health, mental health, and overall well-being.

Outpatient treatment programs allow you to work and spend the evening with your family. There is a wide range of options for outpatient treatment including:

  • Individual and/or group therapy. This helps target the underlying factors in your addiction or dependence.
  • Nonprofessional/ community-based support groups. In recovery, there are many programs (such as AA and NA) and peer support groups that can be helpful in maintaining distance from a problematic substance.

Inpatient treatment programs require you to live at the facility for the duration of your treatment, typically 30, 60 or 90 days. During your stay, your days focus entirely on your recovery. A typical day at a treatment facility could include group therapy sessions, individual therapy sessions, recreational activities designed to help you learn how to function without drugs, addiction education groups, skills training, relapse prevention techniques and optional church services.

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