Phenobarbital is a barbiturate that depresses the central nervous system. It is used as a sedative-hypnotic often prescribed for the treatment of seizures. Additional uses for this drug include the treatment of anxiety and the relief of withdrawal symptoms from other medications.
Phenobarbital can be habit-forming, especially when taken doses larger or more frequent than those prescribed. Even those who take the medication as prescribed for legitimate medical purposes will experience a certain level of tolerance to the effects over time. When misused, tolerance develops faster and people may need increasing amounts to feel the same effects.
As is the case with many other prescription drugs, barbiturates are potentially dangerous because users may feel that:
- Phenobarbital does not have the same addiction potential as illicit drugs.
- The drug is essentially safe for use and will not cause significant negative side effects because it is prescribed.
Phenobarbital is potentially addictive and can easily jump the line between safe therapeutic dose and fatal dose (Narrow Therapeutic Index). Misuse of the drug, especially in combination with alcohol or other drugs, can:
- Amplify the effects of both.
- Send levels of phenobarbital in the blood into toxic territory.
Signs and Symptoms
Phenobarbital creates a dulling effect on the central nervous system and can produce the following effects:
- Blisters and lesions on the skin.
- Dilated pupils.
- Double vision.
- Ataxia, or loss of muscular coordination.
- Altered consciousness and behavior.
- Slurred speech.
- Liver damage.
It’s important to note that these signs don’t necessarily point to abuse, since phenobarbital is a commonly used anti-convulsant and levels can be difficult to stabilize. However, when these effects occur together with more acute signs of toxicity such as hallucinations and true delirium, it is an indication that the person needs immediate medical treatment and assessment for possible addiction. It should be noted that the profound central nervous system depression effects of any of the barbiturate medications could result in coma and death, if taken in excess.
Effects of Phenobarbital Abuse
In addition to the physical effects mentioned above, abuse of phenobarbital, like any drug, will typically manifest in other ways, as well.
If you are concerned about the potential for phenobarbital abuse in yourself or someone you care about, it’s important to look for the mental and social effects of abuse:
- Memory loss.
- Impaired attention span.
- Interpersonal difficulties, such as increased tendency to begin arguments.
- Negative changes in performance in school or at work.
Phenobarbital Abuse Treatment
Rehab programs approach addiction from multiple angles using a wide array of treatment types. The severity of addiction tends to dictate which type of treatment is best. It’s also important to note that phenobarbital can have life-threatening withdrawal symptoms, so it’s essential to detox under the supervision of a qualified medical professional or in a rehabilitation setting.
Once you’ve detoxed safety, you may consider:
- Inpatient rehabilitation programs. These offer immersive care and ongoing support through the recovery process.
- Outpatient treatment programs. These programs offer the benefit of living at home during recovery but are not as immersive.
- 12-step programs. These programs are great for those in the process of recovery, as they provide a supportive network for those living with addiction.
Barbiturates have recently been cast aside in favor of newer medications, despite their efficacy in treating epilepsy. The risks outweigh the benefits in most cases. In fact:
- According to the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 52 million people over age 12 in the U.S. have taken prescription medication non-medically at some point.
- Tranquilizers, which include barbiturates such as phenobarbital, fall in the top 3 classes of most abused prescription drugs, according to a University of Texas study.
- Per SAMHSA, in 2011, 18,282 Emergency Department visits involved the nonmedical use of barbiturates.
Teen Phenobarbital Abuse
Nine percent of adolescents have used barbiturates recreationally. Phenobarbital is carefully dose-adjusted according to weight and metabolism. The difference between a safe and dangerous dosage is small, which puts teens at high risk.
Commonly referred to as “feenies” on the street, phenobarbital may be sought out on an illicit basis by teens because they can produce a similar effect to that of alcohol and its effects can as last up to 12 hours.
Be suspicious if you notice drunkenness in your teen but know that he or she consumed little to no alcohol.
Preventing Teen Phenobarbital Abuse
You can take certain steps to prevent drug abuse in your teen:
- Lock up your prescriptions.
- Monitor how much of your prescription has been used and take action if you notice significant changes.
- Talk to your teen about the dangers of addiction.
- Explain that prescription medication can be just as addictive as other drugs.
For more information on phenobarbital abuse and addiction, check out the following articles:
- The Effects of Phenobarbital Abuse
- How to Help a Phenobarbital Addict
- Concurrent Alcohol and Phenobarbital Abuse
You can also speak to others about the problem of addiction by visiting our DrugAbuse.com Forum today.