Concurrent Alcohol And Crack Abuse
Concurrent Alcohol And Crack Abuse
In the mid-1980s, crack cocaine use exploded across the United States. In 1974, 5 million people had tried cocaine. By 1985, more than 22 million people had tried cocaine, with more than half of them reporting having used it in the past year (Ehieumua, 2014). Although it does not gain as much publicity as it did in the 1980s, crack cocaine still plagues many cities, families and individuals because of its highly addictive properties (Ehieumua, 2014).
Crack is produced by processing cocaine to remove its hydrochloride (a process known as "freebasing"). This produces a form of the drug that creates a more intense, but shorter “high” for the user. Crack’s brief, euphoric rush is followed by an uncomfortable, intense “low” that encourages immediate repeated, compulsive use.
Crack is usually sold in plastic bags or small vials made of glass (Mahan, 1996). Many factors contribute to crack's popularity, including its low cost, ease of use, and capacity to be smoked rather than injected or snorted.
The combination of crack with alcohol is all too common — users often drink alcohol before choosing to use crack to enhance the "high," but this combination can induce a range of side effects and may even be fatal (Grant & Harford, 1990).
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 1
Crack Cocaine: Key Facts
- Smoking crack produces almost immediate effects.
- Crack cocaine's effects typically last between 5 and 15 minutes.
- Crack cocaine produces powerful effects that, in some cases, can result in sudden death.
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 2
Signs And Symptoms
Crack speeds up the body's metabolism, which means that it sends the signals the alcohol produces more quickly to the brain. That can lead to a higher high, but it also can negate the feeling of being drunk. Some alcoholics that use crack can drink to complete excess and not feel its effects, resulting in blood poisoning.
Here are several signs of concurrent alcohol and crack abuse:
- Much greater alertness than in the typical drunk person.
- Greater sense of well-being and abilities.
- Increased talkativeness.
- Loss of appetite.
- Mood swings and irritability.
- Extreme paranoia.
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 3
Mixing crack and alcohol speeds up the heart rate to an incredible and dangerous level. The chances of overdosing or inducing fatal effects rises rapidly when the two are taken together (Wilson, et al., 2001).
Concurrent crack and alcohol use has the potential to result in a number of negative and even deadly health effects. One particular concern unique to cocaine and alcohol is cocaethylene. When a person mixes alcohol and crack, their body produces cocaethylene. Cocaethylene, when formed in the presence of cocaine and ethanol, may alter the subjective intoxication experienced from either substance alone. Furthermore, this chemical is slower to metabolize than either cocaine or alcohol and becomes extremely toxic as it builds up in the body tissues. This can result in harmful cardiovascular effects, such as myocardial depression. Cocaethylene significantly heightens the risk of sudden death.
The combined use of alcohol and crack can also cause:
- Increased heart rate.
- Muscle injury.
- Violent thought and behaviors.
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 4
Treatment for Co-Occurring Addictions
Fortunately, much has been learned about crack over the past several decades. Outstanding rehab programs have been created to help users kick the alcohol and crack addiction. Crack can be so addictive that a person is unable to quit it alone; professional help is called for in almost all cases.
Treatment for a co-occurring crack and alcohol addiction may include prescribed medications to address side effects and withdrawal, as well as therapy to help you understand the underlying psychological issues that led to addiction.
Look for a rehab center that offers a program focusing on alcohol and crack addiction. The best-trained rehab counselors will help you deal with the most common withdrawal symptoms associated with crack addiction:
- Nausea and vomiting.
- "The shakes."
- Muscle pain.
- Disturbed sleep.
In many cases, addiction develops as a result of mental health disorders or past trauma, and it may be important to find a treatment facility that offers mental health services. Centers which specialize in the treatment of addiction alongside mental health disorders are referred to as “dual diagnosis” treatment centers.
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 5
Teen Drinking And Crack Abuse
Although use of crack cocaine among teens has been declining in recent years, 31% of twelfth graders reported that crack would be “fairly easy” or “very easy” to get if they wanted (Johnston, et al., 2011).
Teen drinking and crack abuse are particular problematic because a teen's body is less able to absorb the powerful effect of crack. Blood poisoning and sudden death due to elevated heart rates are more common in less developed bodies with less mature brains.
Alcohol And Crack Abuse question 6
Resources, Articles And More Information
For additional information, see the following articles:
For professional help to free you from your dangerous crack and alcohol addiction, call 1-888-744-0069Who Answers? to discuss your treatment options. Many users do overcome these intense addictions, and you can too.
- Botros, M., & Salloum, I. M. (2015). Acute Kidney Injury Associated With Alcohol and Cocaine Abuse: A Case Report. Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment.
- Cocaine and Crack Facts and Effects. Retrieved March 14, 2016 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/drug-facts/cocaine-and-crack-facts
- Ehiemua, S. (2014). DRUG AND ALCOHOL: AN EPIDEMIC IN AMERICA.European Journal of Research in Medical Sciences Vol, 2(2).
- Feliciano, D. V., Ojukwu, J. C., Rozycki, G. S., Ballard, R. B., Ingram, W. L., Salomone, J., ... & Newman, P. G. (1999). The epidemic of cocaine-related juxtapyloric perforations: with a comment on the importance of testing for Helicobacter pylori. Annals of surgery, 229(6), 801.
- Grant BF, Harford TC. Concurrent and simultaneous use of alcohol with cocaine: results of national survey. Drug Alcohol Depend 1990;25: 97-104.
- Johnston, L. D., O’Malley, P. M., Bachman, J. G., & Schulenberg, J. E. (2011).Monitoring the Future: National results on adolescent drug use, 2010. Ann Arbor: Institute for Social Research, The University of Michigan.
- Levine, D. A. (2007). ‘Pharming’: The abuse of prescription and over-the-counter drugs in teens. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 19(3), 270-274.
- Mahan, S. (1996). Crack cocaine, crime, and women: Legal, social, and treatment issues (Vol. 4). Sage Publications.
- Mosher, C. J., & Akins, S. (2006). Drugs and drug policy: The control of consciousness alteration. Sage Publications.
- National Drug Intelligence Center. Crack Cocaine Fast Facts (January 1, 2006). Retrieved March 14, 2016 from https://www.justice.gov/archive/ndic/pubs3/3978/
- Pennings, E. J., Leccese, A. P., & Wolff, F. A. D. (2002). Effects of concurrent use of alcohol and cocaine. Addiction, 97(7), 773-783.
- Wilson L. D., Jeromin J., Garvey L., Dorbandt A. Cocaine, ethanol, and cocaethylene cardiotoxity in an animal model of cocaine and ethanol abuse. Acad Emerg Med 2001; 8: 211–22